한국과 일본의 청년실업 비교분석 및 시사점(Comparative Analysis of Youth Unemployment in Korea and Japan: Implications for Korea)

64 Pages Posted: 11 Dec 2018

See all articles by SaangJoon Baak

SaangJoon Baak

Waseda University

Namju Kim

Bank of Korea - Economic Research Institute

Keunho Jang

Bank of Korea - Economic Research Institute

Date Written: December 6, 2018

Abstract

Korean Abstract:
본 논문은 OECD 30개국의 2000-2017년 데이터를 사용하여 20대 초
반과 후반 청년실업률의 결정요인을 분석하여 한국의 청년실업률이
일본에 비해 높은 이유를 규명하는 한편, 일본의 청년실업 대책이 한국
에 주는 시사점을 모색하였다. 전체 실업률, 각 연령대의 인구비중, GDP 성
장률, 임금근로자 비중, 고령화율, 파트타임근로자 비중 등이 청년실업에 
유의한 영향을 주는 설명변수인 것으로 나타났으며, 20대 청년인구 비
중의 감소는 청년실업 해소에 도움을 주지 못하는 것으로 나타났다. 한
국은 임금근로자 비중에서 일본에 비해 불리한 환경이었으며, 일본에
비해 부족한 대기업 일자리, 대기업과 중소기업 간의 과도한 임금 격차도
한국의 청년실업이 높은 이유를 설명하는 요인인 것으로 보인다. 따라서
장기적이고 구조적인 문제의 해소를 위해 지속적으로 노력하는 한편, 일본
의 정책사례 등을 참고하여 단기적인 청년일자리 미스매치(mismatch) 문제
를 해결하는 대책을 적극적으로 추진할 필요가 있겠다.

English Abstract:
This paper analyzes the determining factors in the unemployment rate among young people in their 20s by studying data from 30 OECD member countries between 2000 and 2017. Also, it identifies reasons why Korea has a higher youth unemployment rate than Japan, and assesses what implications Japan’s youth unemployment measures could have on Korea. The study highlights the variables that have meaningful impacts on youth unemployment. They include the unemployment rate among the working-age population, the percentage of each age bracket in the overall population, the GDP growth rate, the percentage of wage laborers in each age group, the percentage of elderly people, and the percentage of part-time workers. This paper also finds that a decline in the youth population, especially among people in their 20s, does not help to address the issue of youth unemployment. Secondly, this paper explains the additional factors behind Korea’s higher youth unemployment rates. One is Korea’s disadvantageous employment environment, compared to that in Japan, in terms of wage earning. Other factors include the existence of fewer decent corporate jobs than in Japan, and wide disparities in wages between large and small corporate jobs. Therefore, while making efforts to resolve long-term and structural problems, it is necessary to actively promote policy measures to solve short-term mismatch problems of youth employment by referring to Japanese policy examples.

Keywords: Youth Unemployment, Youth Unemployment Measures, Panel Data Models

JEL Classification: C33, E24, J48

Suggested Citation

Baak, SaangJoon and Kim, Namju and Jang, Keunho, 한국과 일본의 청년실업 비교분석 및 시사점(Comparative Analysis of Youth Unemployment in Korea and Japan: Implications for Korea) (December 6, 2018). Bank of Korea WP 2018-39. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3296775 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3296775

SaangJoon Baak (Contact Author)

Waseda University ( email )

1-104 Totsukamachi, Shinjuku-ku
tokyo, 169-8050
Japan

Namju Kim

Bank of Korea - Economic Research Institute ( email )

110, 3-Ga, Namdaemunno, Jung-Gu
Seoul 100-794
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
+82-2-759-5481 (Phone)

Keunho Jang

Bank of Korea - Economic Research Institute ( email )

110, 3-Ga, Namdaemunno, Jung-Gu
Seoul 100-794
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
+82-2-759-5411 (Phone)

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