온실가스 감축을 위한 국제사회의 탄소가격제 도입과 경제영향 분석 (Global Application and Economic Analysis of Carbon Pricing for Emissions Reduction)

176 Pages Posted: 14 Dec 2018

See all articles by Jin-Young Moon

Jin-Young Moon

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Minsoo Han

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Jihei Song

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Eunmi Kim

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Date Written: December 27, 2017

Abstract

Korean Abstract: 파리기후협정 발효로 온실가스 감축 노력이 국제사회 전반으로 확산됨에 따라 각 국가는 온실가스 감축과 배출로 인한 외부불경제를 줄이는 다양한 정책수단을 고려할 수 있다. 탄소가격제(carbon pricing)는 탄소 배출에 가격을 부여하는 것으로 각국 정부가 기업과 같은 배출주체에 온실가스 배출로 인한 외부성 비용을 부담시키는 규제 수단으로 활용되고 있다. 2017년 기준으로 42개 국가와 25개 지방정부가 탄소 배출에 가격을 부여하고 있으며, 이러한 추세는 더욱 확산될 것이다.

따라서 본 연구에서는 주요국의 배출 현황과 정책 대응을 살펴보고, 국제사회에서 다양한 방식으로 적용하고 있는 탄소 배출비용을 분석하였다. 이를 토대로 온실가스 감축을 위한 탄소가격제 도입이 글로벌 경제에 파급할 영향을 분석하고, 국제사회의 탄소가격제 확산에 따른 대응방안을 도출하였다.

English Abstract: The Paris climate agreement catalyzed international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Countries are actively considering various policy measures to reduce emissions themselves, as well as the external uncertainty derived from these emissions. In these circumstances, carbon pricing is a measure taken by many governments to regulate emissions from the private sector by imposing a price on emissions. As of December 2017, 42 countries and 25 local governments are levying taxes on carbon emissions, and this trend is likely to expand further.

This study examines emissions and emission regulation policies in major countries. We further analyze various carbon pricing measures taken by the international community. Based on this analysis, we analyze the impact of carbon pricing on the global economy and derive implications for Korea.

First, we compare the GHG emissions of major emitters, namely China, the United States, the European Union and Japan. During the review period (1995-2013), China pursued rapid economic growth, emitting GHG at a significantly increasing rate. However, this pace is slowing down recently. The U.S. and Japan show fluctuating GHG emissions during the same period. In the long-term perspective, emissions from the U.S. are at a declining rate. Likewise, the EU displays steady and visible decline of GHG emissions since 2006. These countries generate more than 80% of all greenhouse gases, mostly carbon dioxide, in the energy sector. In 2013, more than 95% of total emissions came from fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum.

Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.

Keywords: Carbon pricing, emission reduction

Suggested Citation

Moon, Jin-Young and Han, Minsoo and Song, Jihei and Kim, Eunmi, 온실가스 감축을 위한 국제사회의 탄소가격제 도입과 경제영향 분석 (Global Application and Economic Analysis of Carbon Pricing for Emissions Reduction) (December 27, 2017). KIEP Research Paper. Policy Analyses 17-31. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3299911 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3299911

Jin-Young Moon (Contact Author)

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Minsoo Han

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Jihei Song

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Eunmi Kim

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

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