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Maternal Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Human Milk Microbiota

59 Pages Posted: 18 Dec 2018

See all articles by Marina Padilha

Marina Padilha

University of São Paulo (USP)

Niels Banhos Danneskiold-Samsøe

University of Copenhagen

Asker Brejnrod

University of Copenhagen

Christian Hoffmann

University of São Paulo (USP)

Vanessa Pereira Cabral

University of São Paulo (USP)

Julia de Melo Iaucci

University of São Paulo (USP)

Cristiane Hermes Sales

University of São Paulo (USP)

Regina Mara Fisberg

University of São Paulo (USP)

Ramon Vitor Cortez

University of São Paulo (USP)

Susanne Brix

Technical University of Denmar - Center for Biological Sequence Analysis

Carla Romano Taddei

University of São Paulo (USP)

Karsten Kristiansen

Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI)

Susana M.I. Saad

University of Sao Paulo (USP) - School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; University of São Paulo (USP) - Food Research Center (FoRC)

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Abstract

Background: Human milk microorganisms contribute towards developing the gut microbiota in infants and in shaping the immune system in early life. We evaluated the effect of the maternal diet during pregnancy and during the first month of lactation on the human milk microbiota.  

Methods: A cross-sectional investigation included healthy lactating women with uncomplicated pregnancy. Associations between nutrients and human milk bacteria community were evaluated through PERMANOVA tests and clustering analysis using weighted UniFrac distance for nutrients.  

Findings: Three genera were present in all samples: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium (mean relative abundance 42%, 22%, and 7%, respectively). Other genera, including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, were detected at lower abundances. Significant differences in the microbiota composition were found only for vitamin C intake levels during pregnancy (p = 0.029). Clustering analysis revealed 2 clusters, one driven by Streptococcus (cluster 1), and one by Staphylococcus (cluster 2). During pregnancy, in cluster 2, intake of vitamin C was higher (median 232 mg/d; cluster 1 = 175 mg/d; p = 0.02) and trends towards higher levels of pectin (p = 0.053) and lycopene (p = 0.058) intake were observed. Also, a positive correlation between intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids/linoleic fatty acids during lactation and the proportion of Bifidobacterium in milk (rho coefficient = 0.29 and 0.27, respectively; p < 0.01) were observed.  

Interpretation: Maternal long-term dietary habits during pregnancy contribute towards shaping the human milk microbiota, which is only slightly influenced by maternal short-term diet (first month of lactation).  

Funding Statement: This work was supported by São Paulo State Research Funding Agency (FAPESP, Projects #2013/26435-3, 2013/07914-8, and 2016/07936-0)..

Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics Approval Statement: The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil and by the Research Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil - CAAE: 27247614.6.0000.0067. The selected women were invited to participate in the study and enrolled after signing the Written Informed Consent Form.

Keywords: maternal diet; microbiota; breast milk; gut colonization; breastfeeding; Bifidobacterium

Suggested Citation

Padilha, Marina and Banhos Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels and Brejnrod, Asker and Hoffmann, Christian and Pereira Cabral, Vanessa and de Melo Iaucci, Julia and Hermes Sales, Cristiane and Fisberg, Regina Mara and Vitor Cortez, Ramon and Brix, Susanne and Romano Taddei, Carla and Kristiansen, Karsten and Saad, Susana M.I., Maternal Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Human Milk Microbiota (December 13, 2018). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3301624

Marina Padilha

University of São Paulo (USP) ( email )

Rua Luciano Gualberto, 315
São Paulo, São Paulo 14800-901
Brazil

Niels Banhos Danneskiold-Samsøe

University of Copenhagen ( email )

Nørregade 10
Copenhagen, København DK-1165
Denmark

Asker Brejnrod

University of Copenhagen ( email )

Nørregade 10
Copenhagen, København DK-1165
Denmark

Christian Hoffmann

University of São Paulo (USP) ( email )

Rua Luciano Gualberto, 315
São Paulo, São Paulo 14800-901
Brazil

Vanessa Pereira Cabral

University of São Paulo (USP) ( email )

Rua Luciano Gualberto, 315
São Paulo, São Paulo 14800-901
Brazil

Julia De Melo Iaucci

University of São Paulo (USP) ( email )

Rua Luciano Gualberto, 315
São Paulo, São Paulo 14800-901
Brazil

Cristiane Hermes Sales

University of São Paulo (USP) ( email )

Rua Luciano Gualberto, 315
São Paulo, São Paulo 14800-901
Brazil

Regina Mara Fisberg

University of São Paulo (USP) ( email )

Rua Luciano Gualberto, 315
São Paulo, São Paulo 14800-901
Brazil

Ramon Vitor Cortez

University of São Paulo (USP) ( email )

Rua Luciano Gualberto, 315
São Paulo, São Paulo 14800-901
Brazil

Susanne Brix

Technical University of Denmar - Center for Biological Sequence Analysis ( email )

Søltofts Plads
Building 221
Kongens Lyngby, DK-2800
Denmark

Carla Romano Taddei

University of São Paulo (USP) ( email )

Rua Luciano Gualberto, 315
São Paulo, São Paulo 14800-901
Brazil

Karsten Kristiansen

Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) ( email )

Shenzhen, Guangdong 518083
China

Susana M.I. Saad (Contact Author)

University of Sao Paulo (USP) - School of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( email )

Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580
Sao Paulo - SP, 05508-000
Brazil
+55-11-3091-2378 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.url?authorId=7103061250

University of São Paulo (USP) - Food Research Center (FoRC) ( email )

São Paulo
Brazil

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