10 Pages Posted: 12 Jan 2019
Date Written: October 18, 2018
The endocrine system assumes a primary role for maintaining energy homeostasis within the body. In coordination with the nervous system, the endocrine system is responsible for regulating hormonal responses to control the use and storage of energy molecules in order to meet the physiological demands of the body and ensure proper cellular functioning. These actions are essential for human survival as they allocate the energy necessary to operate in ever changing environments: supplying the brain with enough glucose to think and perceive, to digest nutrients, to ready the body to external threats (i.e. fight-or-flight), to reproduce, etc. The goal of this paper is to discuss a few of the main components of the endocrine system that are crucial for homeostasis of energy metabolism: insulin, adipose tissue, as well as the roles of gastrointestinal and neuropeptide hormones. In this discussion, we will review the mechanisms behind each component and explore how they affect overall energy metabolism. Furthermore, we will delve into the effects of exercise on the endocrine system and review the mechanisms influencing hormone levels. Finally, we will discuss recent research that presents a new outlook on exercise by way of an evolutionary renovation of metabolic mechanisms that makes humans distinct from our ape ancestors.
Keywords: Endocrinology, Insulin, Adipose Tissue, Gastrointestinal Hormones, Neuropeptide Hormones
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation