An Estimate of the Global Prevalence and Burden of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
45 Pages Posted: 10 Jan 2019More...
Background: There is a lack of published data on the global prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a disease associated with major neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. We used publicly available data and contacted key opinion leaders to estimate the global prevalence of OSA.
Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to identify published studies reporting OSA prevalence based on objective testing. Symptoms were not specifically evaluated due to a lack of information about symptoms in the reference studies and population data. An algorithm was developed to standardise prevalence rates across studies using different diagnostic criteria. Countries without data were matched to a similar country with data; population similarity was based on the population body mass index, race, and geographic proximity.
Findings: Reliable prevalence data for OSA were available for 16 countries (17 studies). Using American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) diagnostic criteria and apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) threshold values of =5/h and =15/h, we estimated that 936 million (95% confidence interval [CI] 903 million to 970 million) and 425 million (95% CI 399 million to 450 million) adults aged 30-69 years (males and females) have mild-to-severe OSA and moderate to severe OSA, respectively. The number of affected individuals was highest in China, followed by the US, Brazil and India.
Interpretation: Nearly 1 billion middle-aged adults worldwide have OSA. The number of people with moderate to severe OSA, in whom treatment is generally recommended, is nearly 425 million. These numbers highlight the importance of strategies to diagnose and treat OSA effectively.
Funding Statement: ResMed
Declaration of Interests: AVB, KV, and CMN are employees of ResMed. NTA reports being on the advisory board of Bresotec. PRE is supported in part from a Senior Research Fellowship from the NHMRC (No. 1042341). RH reports grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grants 3200B0-105993, 3200B0-118308, 33CSCO122661, 33CS30-139468 and 33CS30-148401), the Leenaards Foundation, the Ligue Pulmonaire Vaudoise, GlaxoSmithKline and the Faculty of Biology and Medicine of Lausanne University, and personal fees for medical advisory board work from Nightbalance. MSMI reports no conflicts of interest. MJM reports being principal investigator on a multicentre trial funded by ResMed. SRP reports having received grant funding through his institution from the American Sleep Medicine Foundation, the ResMed Foundation, Bayer Pharmaceuticals and Philips Respironics. TP reports personal funding by ICRC St. Anne Hospital Brno Czech Republic, and institutional funding by Heel, Bioprojet, ResMed, Philips Respironics, and Löwenstein Medical Technology. JLP is supported by a research grant from the French National Research Agency (ANR-12-TECS-0010), in the framework of the “Investissements d’avenir” program (ANR-15-IDEX-02) and reports participation in medXcloud an academic and industry partnership sponsored by ResMed. PEP reports no conflicts of interest. SS reports no conflicts of interest. ST reports no conflicts of interest. AM relinquished all outside personal income as an Officer of the American Thoracic Society in 2012. ResMed provided a philanthropic donation to UC San Diego and reports participation in medXcloud an academic and industry partnership sponsored by ResMed.
Keywords: Sleep apnoea, Epidemiology
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