Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoscaled Ba(Ti1−x−ySnxGey)O3 Powders and Corresponding Ceramics

Posted: 17 Jan 2019

See all articles by Mandy Zenkner

Mandy Zenkner

Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg - Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

Lothar Jäger

Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg - Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

Roberto Köferstein

Martin Luther Universitat Halle Wittenberg

Hans-Peter Abicht

Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg - Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

Date Written: March 12, 2008

Abstract

Nanoscaled Ba(Ti1−x−ySnxGey)O3 (BTSG − x − y, x = 0–0.1, y = 0–0.05) powders were synthesized by a sol–gel method (SG) and, as a reference, coarse powders by a mixed-oxide method (MO). The particle sizes were determined by XRD, BET, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The sol–gel method supplied globular particles with narrow fractions in the range between 53 nm and 125 nm. However, from the mixed-oxide method irregularly grown particles were generated with diameters between 300 nm and 700 nm. The SG powders showed a higher sintering activity and, additionally, Sn4+ ions were incorporated at lower temperatures into the BaTiO3 structure. The addition of at least 2 mol% BaGeO3 (BG) resulted in ceramics of densities as high as 96% even at 1050 °C. Furthermore, the cubic ⇆ tetragonal phase transition temperatures were measured by dilatometry, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The temperature and sharpness of the transition are dependent on tin and germanium content. Increasing tin and germanium concentration causes the phase transition temperature to decrease and more diffuse transition.

Keywords: BaTiO3, BaSnO3, BaGeO3, perovskite, germanate, permittivity, sintering, nano, sol-gel, ferroelectric, phase transition, diffuse

Suggested Citation

Zenkner, Mandy and Jäger, Lothar and Köferstein, Roberto and Abicht, Hans-Peter, Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoscaled Ba(Ti1−x−ySnxGey)O3 Powders and Corresponding Ceramics (March 12, 2008). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3311518

Mandy Zenkner

Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg - Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

Halle (Saale), Saxony-Anhalt 06108
Germany

Lothar Jäger

Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg - Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

Halle (Saale), Saxony-Anhalt 06108
Germany

Roberto Köferstein (Contact Author)

Martin Luther Universitat Halle Wittenberg ( email )

Universitätsplatz 10
Halle (Saale), Saxony-Anhalt 06108
Germany

Hans-Peter Abicht

Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg - Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry ( email )

Halle (Saale), Saxony-Anhalt 06108
Germany

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