Ghosts in the Machine: How Corrupters Manipulate Games that Never Happened

22 Gaming Law Review 630 (2018)

8 Pages Posted: 24 Jan 2019

Date Written: December 13, 2018


Lacking from the current state legislation has been a comprehensive plan to address sport corruption. Many states and the federal government are presently relying on antiquated statutes as a security against match-fixing. These measures are likely inadequate to prevent the modern iterations of match-fixing, which now extend well beyond the 1950s and 60s era bribery scandals. Match-fixing is now a sophisticated global menace, which uses both carrots and sticks to induce players, referees, coaches, and executives to manipulate contests. The global match-fixing menace is so sophisticated that it no longer requires actual teams or referees to do its bidding in some instances. So-called “ghost-fixing” or fixing of ghost games is a serious threat to the integrity of the betting market, which relies on reputation to attract customers, not unlike other financial markets.

Keywords: match-fixing, ghosts, sports betting, wagering, gambling

JEL Classification: L83, K00, K14, K42, L50, L80, L82

Suggested Citation

Holden, John, Ghosts in the Machine: How Corrupters Manipulate Games that Never Happened (December 13, 2018). 22 Gaming Law Review 630 (2018). Available at SSRN:

John Holden (Contact Author)

Oklahoma State University ( email )

201 Business Building
Stillwater, OK 74078-0555
United States

Here is the Coronavirus
related research on SSRN

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics