An Attempt to Replicate Schwarz et al. (1991)

13 Pages Posted: 1 Mar 2019

See all articles by KwanYin Chan

KwanYin Chan

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Minhtri Chu

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Lauren Marie DePaul

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Micah Gallego

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Xiang Li

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Kyler Nathan

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Nishi Parikh

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Josephine Stoermann

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Ashley Stone

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Kristina Van de Goor

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Luke Wang

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Sofia Zhao

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Hal Pashler

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Psychology

Date Written: January 26, 2019

Abstract

This paper presents a pre-registered direct replication attempt focused on Experiment 1 of Schwarz et al. (1991). The replication was conducted at UCSD in the spring of 2017. Subjects were required to recall the number of times they had been assertive or unassertive (6 or 12) and also to rate their overall level of assertiveness. The number of subjects was 273 (the original had had 40). Three types of analysis were performed: a 2 (6 examples v. 12 examples) × 2 (assertive v. unassertive) ANOVA, a correlation between the reported difficulty of retrieving examples and composite measure of assertiveness, and the correlation between the subject’s reported ease of retrieval and the number of examples that the subject was asked to recall. The original study reported that the individuals were more likely to judge themselves as less assertive when asked to recall a greater numbers of occasions in which they had been assertive; this was not replicated. Instead, the current results suggested (1) that recalling examples of assertive (rather than unassertive) behavior led people to report themselves as more assertive, and (2) for people who recalled examples of assertive behaviors, self-reported difficulty of recall was negatively correlated with self-reported assertiveness. The results of the current study seem to be entirely consistent with a simpler formulation of the Availability Heuristic than what Schwarz et al. had proposed. This simpler account proposes that people’s assessment of how common something is depends both upon the number of examples that they can think of and their judgment of how much difficulty they had in coming up with the examples.

Keywords: assertive and unassertive behavior, ease of recall, self-assessment, availability heuristic

Suggested Citation

Chan, KwanYin and Chu, Minhtri and DePaul, Lauren Marie and Gallego, Micah and Li, Xiang and Nathan, Kyler and Parikh, Nishi and Stoermann, Josephine and Stone, Ashley and Van de Goor, Kristina and Wang, Luke and Zhao, Sofia and Pashler, Hal, An Attempt to Replicate Schwarz et al. (1991) (January 26, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3323491 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3323491

KwanYin Chan

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) ( email )

9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093
United States

Minhtri Chu

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

9500 Gilman Drive
Mail Code 0502
La Jolla, CA 92093-0112
United States

Lauren Marie DePaul

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) ( email )

9500 Gilman Drive
Mail Code 0502
La Jolla, CA 92093-0112
United States

Micah Gallego

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) ( email )

9500 Gilman Drive
Mail Code 0502
La Jolla, CA 92093-0112
United States

Xiang Li

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

9500 Gilman Drive
Mail Code 0502
La Jolla, CA 92093-0112
United States

Kyler Nathan

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

9500 Gilman Drive
Mail Code 0502
La Jolla, CA 92093-0112
United States

Nishi Parikh

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) ( email )

9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093
United States

Josephine Stoermann

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) ( email )

9500 Gilman Drive
Mail Code 0502
La Jolla, CA 92093-0112
United States

Ashley Stone

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Kristina Van de Goor

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) ( email )

9500 Gilman Drive
Mail Code 0502
La Jolla, CA 92093-0112
United States

Luke Wang

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Sofia Zhao

University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

9500 Gilman Drive
Mail Code 0502
La Jolla, CA 92093-0112
United States

Hal Pashler (Contact Author)

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Department of Psychology ( email )

9500 Gilman Drive
Mail Code #0109
La Jolla, CA 92093-0112
United States

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