Reliance on Science in Patenting: USPTO Front-Page Citations to Scientific Articles
47 Pages Posted: 4 Mar 2019 Last revised: 3 Sep 2019
Date Written: August 20, 2019
To what extent do firms rely on basic science in their R&D efforts? Several scholars have sought to answer this and related questions, but progress has been impeded by the difficulty of matching unstructured references in patents to published papers. We introduce an open-access dataset of references from the front pages of all patents granted by the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office to scientific papers published since 1800 as captured by the Microsoft Academic Graph. Each patent-paper linkage is assigned a confidence score, which is characterized in a random sample by false negatives vs. false positives. We outline several avenues for strategy research enabled by these new data.
Keywords: knowledge diffusion, patents, innovation, science, technology transfer
JEL Classification: O3, O31, O33
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