Judging Judge Fixed Effects

55 Pages Posted: 12 Feb 2019 Last revised: 3 Apr 2022

See all articles by Brigham R. Frandsen

Brigham R. Frandsen

Brigham Young University - Department of Economics

Lars John Lefgren

Brigham Young University - Department of Economics

Emily C. Leslie

Brigham Young University

Date Written: February 2019

Abstract

We propose a test for the identifying assumptions invoked in designs based on random assignment to one of many "judges.'' We show that standard identifying assumptions imply that the conditional expectation of the outcome given judge assignment is a continuous function with bounded slope of the judge propensity to treat. The implication leads to a two-part test that generalizes the Sargan-Hansen overidentification test and assesses whether implied treatment effects across the range of judge propensities are possible given the domain of the outcome. We show the asymptotic validity of the testing procedure, demonstrate its finite-sample performance in simulations, and apply the test in an empirical setting examining the effects of pre-trial release on defendant outcomes in Miami. When the assumptions are not satisfied, we propose a weaker average monotonicity assumption under which IV still converges to a proper weighted average of treatment effects.

Suggested Citation

Frandsen, Brigham R. and Lefgren, Lars John and Leslie, Emily C., Judging Judge Fixed Effects (February 2019). NBER Working Paper No. w25528, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3332275

Brigham R. Frandsen (Contact Author)

Brigham Young University - Department of Economics ( email )

130 Faculty Office Bldg.
Provo, UT 84602-2363
United States

Lars John Lefgren

Brigham Young University - Department of Economics ( email )

130 Faculty Office Bldg.
Provo, UT 84602-2363
United States

Emily C. Leslie

Brigham Young University

Provo, UT 84602
United States

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