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Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Alcoholism: A 16-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study

39 Pages Posted: 20 Feb 2019

See all articles by I-Chao Liu

I-Chao Liu

Fu Jen University Hospital

Shu-Fen Liao

National Taiwan University - Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine

Lawrence Shih-Hsin

China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences

Susan Shur-Fen Gau

National Taiwan University - Department of Psychiatry; National Taiwan University - Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine; National Taiwan University, College of Medicine, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine; National Taiwan University - Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences

Wen-Chung Lee

National Taiwan University - Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine

Kathleen Ries Merikangas

Government of the United States of America - National Institute of Mental Health

Andrew T. A. Cheng

Academia Sinica - Institute of Biomedical Sciences; China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences

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Abstract

Background: Alcoholism involves genetic, psychological, and sociocultural risk factors. We investigated a wide range of these risk factors in a 16-year follow-up cohort.

Methods: A total of 428 cohort subjects free from any lifetime DSM-III-R alcohol use disorder (AUD) at baseline were followed up. We used a Chinese version of the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), together with a life chart containing alcohol drinking history of cohort subjects to assess AUDs and psychiatric comorbid conditions. The extent of acculturation was measured using the Taiwan Aboriginal Acculturation Scale. The main outcome was time to onset of AUDs in months, i.e., the duration between phase 1 and the onset of alcoholism. Both univariate and multiple Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted to investigate the individual and joint effects of sociocultural factors and psychiatric comorbidity assessed 16 years ago, and genetic predisposition to ADH1B (N=387) on the time to onset of alcoholism.

Findings: We found that antecedent anxiety disorder, the extent of acculturation, and ADH1B genotype interact differently in different developmental phases for alcoholism. Among cohort subjects aged 15-20, those who inherited the more active form of ADH1B and had a high extent of acculturation had the lowest risk for alcoholism among all subgroups; among subjects aged 21-34, antecedent anxiety disorder had an independent effect in predicting alcoholism (RR = 3·12; 95% CI = 1·68-5·80); and among subjects aged 35 and older, those with a higher extent of acculturation had a higher risk for alcoholism (RR = 8·92; 95% CI = 1·15- 69·48).

Interpretation: Gene-environment interaction in the development of alcoholism has been demonstrated in this longitudinal cohort. Our results suggest distinct intervention strategies for alcoholism across different developmental stages.

Funding Statement: Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology

Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics Approval Statement: Ethics approval for the TASP project was initially approved by the National Science Council, Taiwan for phases 1 and 2 surveys, and was further approved by the Institutional Review Board, Academia Sinica for the phase 3 follow-up.

Suggested Citation

Liu, I-Chao and Liao, Shu-Fen and Shih-Hsin, Lawrence and Gau, Susan Shur-Fen and Lee, Wen-Chung and Merikangas, Kathleen Ries and Cheng, Andrew T. A., Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Alcoholism: A 16-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study (02/15/2019 03:25:49). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3335865

I-Chao Liu

Fu Jen University Hospital

New Taipei City
Taiwan

Shu-Fen Liao

National Taiwan University - Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine

1 Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road
Taipei 106, 106
Taiwan

Lawrence Shih-Hsin

China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences

No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road
Taichung, 40402
Taiwan

Susan Shur-Fen Gau

National Taiwan University - Department of Psychiatry ( email )

Taipei
Taiwan

National Taiwan University - Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine ( email )

1 Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road
Taipei 106, 106
Taiwan

National Taiwan University, College of Medicine, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine ( email )

Taipei
Taiwan

National Taiwan University - Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences ( email )

Taipei
Taiwan

Wen-Chung Lee

National Taiwan University - Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine

Taipei
Taiwan

Kathleen Ries Merikangas

Government of the United States of America - National Institute of Mental Health

6001 Executive Boulevard, Rm. 7117, MSC 9629
Bethesda, MA 20892
United States

Andrew T. A. Cheng (Contact Author)

Academia Sinica - Institute of Biomedical Sciences ( email )

128 Academia Road, Section 2
Nankang, Taipei 11529
Taiwan

China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences ( email )

No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road
Taichung, 40402
Taiwan

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