The Internet of Torts: Expanding Civil Liability Standards to Address Corporate Remote Interference

85 Pages Posted: 18 Mar 2019 Last revised: 20 Dec 2019

See all articles by Rebecca Crootof

Rebecca Crootof

University of Richmond School of Law; Yale University - Yale Information Society Project

Date Written: February 26, 2019


The proliferating internet-connected devices that constitute the “Internet of Things” (IoT) grant companies unprecedented control over consumers’ use of property, often at the expense of consumer safety. Companies can now remotely—and, with algorithmic enforcement, automatically—alter or deactivate items, a practice that causes foreseeable property damage and even bodily injury when an otherwise operational car, alarm system, or implanted medical device abruptly ceases to function.

Even as the potential for harm escalates, contract and tort law work in tandem to shield IoT companies from liability. Exculpatory clauses limit both contract and tort remedies; disclaimers and express warranties bar implied warranty claims; and contractual notice of remote interference precludes common law tort suits. Meanwhile, absent a better understanding of how IoT-enabled injuries operate, judges are likely to apply products liability and negligence standards narrowly. In short, civil liability for this 21st century version of harmful remote action is not appropriately allocated by our 20th century regime.

In the wake of the Industrial Revolution, courts limited corporate liability by creating the modern version of “negligence”; the rise of mass production and cross-country transportation prompted the products liability revolution. Once again, a new technology has altered social and power relations between industry and individuals, creating a liability inflection point where we must decide who should bear the costs going forward. This Article proposes various reforms to expand corporate civil liability that advocates, judges, and policymakers should consider during this critical regulatory window.

Keywords: civil liability, torts, contracts, internet of things, IOT, consumer protection, products liability

Suggested Citation

Crootof, Rebecca and Crootof, Rebecca, The Internet of Torts: Expanding Civil Liability Standards to Address Corporate Remote Interference (February 26, 2019). Duke Law Journal, Vol. 69, 2019, Available at SSRN:

Rebecca Crootof (Contact Author)

Yale University - Yale Information Society Project ( email )

127 Wall Street
New Haven, CT 06511
United States

University of Richmond School of Law ( email )

28 Westhampton Way
Richmond, VA 23173
United States

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