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Shifts in the Genetic Landscape of the Western Eurasian Steppe Associated with the Beginning and End of the Scythian Dominance

49 Pages Posted: 6 Mar 2019 Sneak Peek Status: Review Complete

See all articles by Mari Järve

Mari Järve

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Lehti Saag

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre; University of Tartu - Department of Evolutionary Biology

Christiana Lyn Scheib

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Ajai K. Pathak

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Francesco Montinaro

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Luca Pagani

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre; University of Padova

J. Rodrigo Flores

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Meriam Guellil

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Lauri Saag

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Kristiina Tambets

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Alena Kushniarevich

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Anu Solnik

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Liivi Varul

Tallinn University (TLU) - School of Humanities

Stanislav Zadnikov

V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University - Museum of Archaeology

Oleg Petrauskas

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Maryana Avramenko

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Boris Magomedov

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Serghii Didenko

National Museum of History of Ukraine

Gennadi Toshev

Zaporizhia National University

Igor Bruyako

Odessa Archaeological Museum

Denys Grechko

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Vitalii Okatenko

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - SC SRC “Protective Archeological Service of Ukraine”

Kyrylo Gorbenko

Mykolaiv V. O. Sukhomlynskyi National University

Oleksandr Smyrnov

Mykolaiv V. O. Sukhomlynskyi National University

Anatolii Heiko

National Museum of Ukrainian Pottery in Opishne

Roman Reida

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Serheii Sapiehin

Anton Makarenko Museum

Sergey Sirotin

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Archaeology

Aleksandr Tairov

South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk

Arman Beisenov

A. H. Margulan Institute of Archaeology

Maksim Starodubtsev

Sterlitamak Krai Museum

Vitali Vasilev

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - SC SRC “Protective Archeological Service of Ukraine”

Alexei Nechvaloda

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of History, Language and Literature

Biyaslan Atabiev

Institute of the Caucasus Archaeology

Sergey Litvinov

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics

Natalia Ekomasova

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics; Bashkir State University - Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine

Murat Dzhaubermezov

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics; Bashkir State University - Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine

Sergey Voroniatov

State Hermitage Museum - Department of Archaeology of Eastern Europe and Siberia

Olga Utevska

V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University - Department of Genetics and Cytology

Irina Shramko

V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University - Museum of Archaeology

Elza Khusnutdinova

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics; Bashkir State University - Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine

Mait Metspalu

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Nikita Savelev

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of History, Language and Literature

Aivar Kriiska

University of Tartu - Institute of History and Archaeology

Toomas Kivisild

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre; KU Leuven

Richard Villems

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

More...

Abstract

The Early Iron Age nomadic Scythians have been described as a confederation of tribes of different origins, based on ancient DNA evidence. It is still unclear how much of the Scythian dominance in the Eurasian Steppe was due to movements of people and how much reflected cultural diffusion and elite dominance. We present new whole-genome sequences of 31 ancient Western and Eastern Steppe individuals including Scythians as well as samples pre- and postdating them, allowing us to set the Scythians in a temporal context (in the Western/Ponto-Caspian Steppe). We detect an increase of eastern (Altaian) affinity along with a decrease in Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) ancestry in the Early Iron Age Ponto- Caspian gene pool at the start of the Scythian dominance. On the other hand, samples of the Chernyakhiv culture postdating the Scythians in Ukraine have a significantly higher proportion of Near Eastern ancestry than other samples of this study. Our results agree with the Gothic source of the Chernyakhiv culture and support the hypothesis that the Scythian dominance did involve a demic component.

Suggested Citation

Järve, Mari and Saag, Lehti and Scheib, Christiana Lyn and Pathak, Ajai K. and Montinaro, Francesco and Pagani, Luca and Flores, J. Rodrigo and Guellil, Meriam and Saag, Lauri and Tambets, Kristiina and Kushniarevich, Alena and Solnik, Anu and Varul, Liivi and Zadnikov, Stanislav and Petrauskas, Oleg and Avramenko, Maryana and Magomedov, Boris and Didenko, Serghii and Toshev, Gennadi and Bruyako, Igor and Grechko, Denys and Okatenko, Vitalii and Gorbenko, Kyrylo and Smyrnov, Oleksandr and Heiko, Anatolii and Reida, Roman and Sapiehin, Serheii and Sirotin, Sergey and Tairov, Aleksandr and Beisenov, Arman and Starodubtsev, Maksim and Vasilev, Vitali and Nechvaloda, Alexei and Atabiev, Biyaslan and Litvinov, Sergey and Ekomasova, Natalia and Dzhaubermezov, Murat and Voroniatov, Sergey and Utevska, Olga and Shramko, Irina and Khusnutdinova, Elza and Metspalu, Mait and Savelev, Nikita and Kriiska, Aivar and Kivisild, Toomas and Villems, Richard, Shifts in the Genetic Landscape of the Western Eurasian Steppe Associated with the Beginning and End of the Scythian Dominance (March 5, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3346985 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3346985
This is a paper under consideration at Cell Press and has not been peer-reviewed.

Mari Järve (Contact Author)

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre ( email )

Tartu
Estonia

Lehti Saag

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

University of Tartu - Department of Evolutionary Biology

Tartu
Estonia

Christiana Lyn Scheib

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Ajai K. Pathak

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Francesco Montinaro

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Luca Pagani

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

University of Padova

Via 8 Febbraio
Padova, 2-35122
Italy

J. Rodrigo Flores

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Meriam Guellil

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Lauri Saag

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Kristiina Tambets

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Alena Kushniarevich

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Anu Solnik

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Liivi Varul

Tallinn University (TLU) - School of Humanities

Tallinn
Estonia

Stanislav Zadnikov

V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University - Museum of Archaeology

Kharkiv
Ukraine

Oleg Petrauskas

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Kyiv
Ukraine

Maryana Avramenko

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Kyiv
Ukraine

Boris Magomedov

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Kyiv
Ukraine

Serghii Didenko

National Museum of History of Ukraine

Kyiv
Ukraine

Gennadi Toshev

Zaporizhia National University

Zaporizhia
Ukraine

Igor Bruyako

Odessa Archaeological Museum

Odessa
Ukraine

Denys Grechko

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Kyiv
Ukraine

Vitalii Okatenko

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - SC SRC “Protective Archeological Service of Ukraine”

Kharkiv
Ukraine

Kyrylo Gorbenko

Mykolaiv V. O. Sukhomlynskyi National University

Mykolaiv
Ukraine

Oleksandr Smyrnov

Mykolaiv V. O. Sukhomlynskyi National University

Mykolaiv
Ukraine

Anatolii Heiko

National Museum of Ukrainian Pottery in Opishne

Opishne
Ukraine

Roman Reida

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Institute of Archaeology

Kyiv
Ukraine

Serheii Sapiehin

Anton Makarenko Museum

Kovalivka
Ukraine

Sergey Sirotin

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Archaeology

Moscow
Russia

Aleksandr Tairov

South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk

76, Lenin prospekt
Lenin prospekt
Chelyabinsk, 454080
Russia

Arman Beisenov

A. H. Margulan Institute of Archaeology

Almaty
Kazakhstan

Maksim Starodubtsev

Sterlitamak Krai Museum

Sterlitamak
Russia

Vitali Vasilev

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - SC SRC “Protective Archeological Service of Ukraine”

Kharkiv
Ukraine

Alexei Nechvaloda

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of History, Language and Literature

Ufa
Russia

Biyaslan Atabiev

Institute of the Caucasus Archaeology

Nalchik
Russia

Sergey Litvinov

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics

Ufa
Russia

Natalia Ekomasova

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics

Ufa
Russia

Bashkir State University - Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine

Ufa
Russia

Murat Dzhaubermezov

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics

Ufa
Russia

Bashkir State University - Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine

Ufa
Russia

Sergey Voroniatov

State Hermitage Museum - Department of Archaeology of Eastern Europe and Siberia

St. Petersburg
Russia

Olga Utevska

V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University - Department of Genetics and Cytology

Kharkiv
Ukraine

Irina Shramko

V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University - Museum of Archaeology

Kharkiv
Ukraine

Elza Khusnutdinova

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics

Ufa
Russia

Bashkir State University - Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine

Ufa
Russia

Mait Metspalu

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

Nikita Savelev

Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - Institute of History, Language and Literature

Ufa
Russia

Aivar Kriiska

University of Tartu - Institute of History and Archaeology

Tartu
Estonia

Toomas Kivisild

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

KU Leuven

Oude Markt 13
Leuven, Vlaams-Brabant 3000
Belgium

Richard Villems

University of Tartu - Estonian Biocentre

Tartu
Estonia

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