Smart Contracts and Consumers

52 Pages Posted: 5 Apr 2019

See all articles by Tatiana Cutts

Tatiana Cutts

London School of Economics - Law Department

Date Written: March 18, 2019


‘Smart contracts’ are a way of using computers to make contracts unbreakable. Contracting parties do not need to trust one another to perform or rely upon intermediaries to enforce performance. Performance is guaranteed. This is supposed to be a victory for consumers – a clever socio-economic application of cryptography that strips power from companies and governments and gives it to consumers. But it turns out that less trust does not mean more freedom, or better bargains. The law of contract supports valuable relationships both by enforcing duties and by allowing parties to escape the consequences of ill-formed contracts and oppressive terms. Smart contracts remove these safeguards. Consumers may be bound, inexorably and without recourse, to contracts that are wholly devoid of virtue. The lesson of smart contracting is clear and urgent: when we design the future of commerce, we should direct our resources towards building, not emaciating, relationships of trust.

Suggested Citation

Cutts, Tatiana, Smart Contracts and Consumers (March 18, 2019). LSE Legal Studies Working Paper No. 1/2019. Available at SSRN: or

Tatiana Cutts (Contact Author)

London School of Economics - Law Department ( email )

Houghton Street
London WC2A 2AE, WC2A 2AE
United Kingdom

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