On the Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in Canada

49 Pages Posted: 19 Apr 2019 Last revised: 20 Dec 2020

See all articles by Olena Kostyshyna

Olena Kostyshyna

Bank of Canada

Etienne Lalé

University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM) - Université du Québec à Montréal; CIRANO; IZA

Date Written: December 1, 2020


The number of workers who hold more than one job (a.k.a. multiple jobholders) has increased spectacularly in Canada since the mid-1970s – it has been multiplied by almost three. In this paper, we document this historical change and provide a comprehensive account of its dynamics. To this end, we use restricted-access panel micro-data from the Canadian labour force survey to construct transition probabilities in and out of multiple jobholding. We analyze these data through the lens of a trend decomposition that separates out the role of worker inflows and outflows. The upward trend in multiple jobholding is chiefly explained by the increased likelihood of single jobholders to pick up second jobs. While economic reasons remain important among the motives that push workers towards multiple jobholding, a more flexible hours schedule in the main job may explain why taking on a second job has become more frequent.

Keywords: Multiple jobholding; Worker flows; Long-run trends; Business cycles

JEL Classification: E24, J21, J22, J60

Suggested Citation

Kostyshyna, Olena and Lalé, Etienne, On the Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in Canada (December 1, 2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3357588 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3357588

Olena Kostyshyna

Bank of Canada ( email )

234 Wellington Street
Ontario, Ottawa K1A 0G9

Etienne Lalé (Contact Author)

University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM) - Université du Québec à Montréal ( email )

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Montréal, Québec H3C3P8

CIRANO ( email )

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IZA ( email )

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