On the Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in Canada

43 Pages Posted: 19 Apr 2019 Last revised: 10 May 2019

See all articles by Olena Kostyshyna

Olena Kostyshyna

Bank of Canada

Etienne Lalé

University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM) - Université du Québec à Montréal; CIRANO; IZA

Date Written: May 1, 2019


The number of workers who hold more than one job (a.k.a. multiple jobholders) has increased recently in Canada. While this seems to echo the view that non-standard work arrangements are becoming pervasive, the increase has actually been trivial compared to the long-run rise of multiple jobholding that has occurred since the mid-1970s. In this paper, we document this historical evolution and provide a comprehensive account of its underlying dynamics. To this end, we use restricted-access panel micro-data from the Canadian labour force survey to construct transition probabilities in and out of multiple jobholding. We analyze these data through the lens of a trend decomposition that separates out the role of labour market inflows and outflows. The picture that emerges from our analysis is one of continued increases in the propensity of workers to take on second jobs. We argue that changes in technology and preferences could both be responsible for this evolution.

Keywords: Non-Standard Work; Multiple Jobholding; Worker Flows; Trend Decomposition

JEL Classification: E24, J21, J22, J60

Suggested Citation

Kostyshyna, Olena and Lalé, Etienne, On the Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in Canada (May 1, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3357588 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3357588

Olena Kostyshyna

Bank of Canada ( email )

234 Wellington Street
Ontario, Ottawa K1A 0G9

Etienne Lalé (Contact Author)

University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM) - Université du Québec à Montréal ( email )

CP 8888 Succ Centre Ville
Montréal, Québec H3C3P8

CIRANO ( email )

2020 rue University, 25th floor
Montreal H3C 3J7, Quebec

IZA ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072

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