Politics by Number: Indicators As Social Pressure in International Relations

American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 59, P. 55, 2015

56 Pages Posted: 29 Mar 2019 Last revised: 31 Mar 2019

See all articles by Judith G. Kelley

Judith G. Kelley

Duke University - Trinity College of Arts & Sciences

Beth A. Simmons

University of Pennsylvania

Date Written: 2015

Abstract

The ability to monitor state behavior has become a critical tool of international governance. Systematic monitoring allows for the creation of numerical indicators that can be used to rank, compare and essentially censure states. This article argues that the ability to disseminate such numerical indicators widely and instantly constitutes an exercise of social power, with the potential to change important policy outputs. It explores this argument in the context of the United States’ efforts to combat trafficking in persons and find evidence that monitoring has important effects: countries are more likely to criminalize human trafficking when they are included in the US annual Trafficking in Persons Report, while countries that are placed on a “watch list” are also more likely to criminalize. These findings have broad implications for international governance and the exercise of soft power in the global information age.

Keywords: human trafficking, international politics and governance, performance indicators, systematic monitoring, feedback, shaming, state policy outputs, social pressure theory, empirical analysis, criminalization

Suggested Citation

Kelley, Judith Green and Simmons, Beth A., Politics by Number: Indicators As Social Pressure in International Relations (2015). American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 59, P. 55, 2015. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3362362

Judith Green Kelley

Duke University - Trinity College of Arts & Sciences ( email )

Durham, NC 27708-0204
United States

Beth A. Simmons (Contact Author)

University of Pennsylvania ( email )

3501Sansom
Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States
7817990076 (Phone)

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