Blood Cells of Adult Drosophila Do Not Expand, But Control Survival after Bacterial Infection by Induction of Drosocin Around Their Reservoir at the Respiratory Epithelia
69 Pages Posted: 2 Apr 2019 Sneak Peek Status: Review CompleteMore...
Drosophila melanogaster has been an excellent model for innate immunity, but the role and regulation of adult blood cells and organismal immunity have remained incompletely understood. Here we address these questions in a comprehensive investigation of the blood cell system in adult Drosophila. As a central finding, we reveal the largest reservoir of blood cells (hemocytes) at the respiratory epithelia (tracheal air sacs) and fat body of the thorax and head. We show that most hemocytes of adult Drosophila are phagocytic macrophages (plasmatocytes), derived by more than 60% from the embryonic lineage that parallels vertebrate tissue macrophages. Surprisingly, in contrast to hemocytes at the larval stage, we find no capacity of the adult blood cell system to expand. Instead, we demonstrate its central role in relaying an innate immune response to tissues surrounding the blood cell reservoir: Hemocytes, through Imd signaling and the Jak/Stat pathway ligand Upd3, act as sentinels of bacterial infection that induce expression of the antimicrobial peptide gene Drosocin in the respiratory epithelia and colocalizing domains of the fat body. We demonstrate that endogenous Drosocin expression in these tissues promotes animal survival after bacterial infection. Our work identifies the first molecular step in a new relay of organismal immunity, establishing adult Drosophila as model to dissect mechanisms of inter-organ immunity.
Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster, hemocyte, macrophage, innate immunity, local humoral immune response, antimicrobial peptide, Drosocin, NFκB, imd, Jak/Stat, upd3, respiratory epithelia, tracheal air sacs, fat body, hematopoiesis
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