Integrational Technologies for Development of Three-Dimensional Scaffolds as Platforms in Cartilage Tissue Engineering
26 Pages Posted: 9 Apr 2019
Date Written: April 9, 22019
The prevalence of osteoarthritis is on the rise and an effective treatment for cartilage defects is still being sought. Cartilage tissue in vivo encompasses complex structures and composition, both of which influence cells and many properties of the native cartilage. The extracellular matrix structure and components provides both morphological cues and the necessary signals to promote cell functions including metabolism, proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, cryo-printing and electrospinning were combined to produce multizone scaffolds which consists of three distinctive zones. These scaffolds successfully mimic the collagen fibre orientation of the native cartilage. Moreover, in vitro analysis of chondrocyte seeded scaffolds demonstrated the ability of multizone scaffolds to support long term chondrocyte attachment and survival over a 5 week culture period. Moreover, multizone scaffolds were found to regulate expression of key genes in comparisons to the controls, as well as allow the production of the essential chondrogenic biomolecule glycosaminoglycan. Compressive properties evaluation revealed that multizone scaffolds possess more suitable mechanical properties for the native cartilage in comparison to the electrospun and phase separated controls. Multizone scaffolds provide a viable initial platform which captures the complex structure and compressive properties of the native cartilage, as well maintain chondrocyte phenotype and function, highlighting it’s potential in cartilage tissue engineering applications.
Keywords: Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Electrospinning, 3D printing, Phase Separation, Chondrocytes
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