Hyaluronan Hydrogels Delivering BMP-6 for Local Targeting of Malignant Plasma Cells and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
26 Pages Posted: 10 Apr 2019 First Look: Accepted
Multiple myeloma is a malignant disease characterized by accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Uncoupling of bone formation and resorption by myeloma cells leads to osteolytic lesions. These are prone to fracture and represent a possible survival space for myeloma cells under treatment causing disease relapse. Here we report on a novel approach suitable for local treatment of multiple myeloma based on hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels mimicking the physical properties of the bone marrow. The HA hydrogels are complexed with heparin to achieve sustained presentation and controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6). Others and we have shown that BMP-6 induces myeloma cell apoptosis and bone formation. Using quartz crystal microbalance and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured an initial surface density of 400 ng BMP6/cm2, corresponding to two BMP-6 per heparin molecule, with 50% release within two weeks. HA-hydrogels presenting BMP-6 enhanced the phosphorylation of Smad1/5 while reducing the activity of BMP-6 antagonist sclerostin. These materials induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells and decreased the viability of myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells. BMP-6 functionalized HA-hydrogels represent a promising material for local treatment of myeloma-induced bone disease and residual myeloma cells within lesions to prevent disease relapse or fractures.
Keywords: BMP-6, hyaluronan hydrogel, multiple myeloma, osteogenic differentiation, BMP/ Smad signaling
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