Impacts of the Coexistence of Diabetes and Hypothyroidism on Body Weight Gain, Leptin and Various Metabolic Aspects in Albino Rats.
Ahmed OM, Gabar MA, Ali TM. Impacts of the coexistence of diabetes and hypothyroidism on body weight gain, leptin and various metabolic aspects in albino rats. J Diabetes Complications. 2012;26(6):491–500. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.05.021
Posted: 10 Jul 2020
Date Written: November 30, 2010
The present study was conducted to assess the interrelationship and the influence of the coexistence of diabetes and hypothyroidism on thyroid hormone levels, insulin levels and biochemical variables related to carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism in addition to thyroid gland and Islets of Langerhans histological changes and antioxidant defense system. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to fasting albino rats at dose level of 45 mg/kg b. w. Hypothyroidism in diabetic and normal rats was induced by adding methimazole in drinking water (0.02% w/v) for 4 weeks. The obtained results revealed that hypothyroidism interacts with diabetes in a way that prevents the progress of the hyperglycemic state. This may be due to the increase in the insulin secretory response in diabetic hypothyroid than diabetic rats. Serum T3 level decreased in order in diabetic (− 26.63%), hypothyroid (− 61.89%) and diabetic hypothyroid (− 65.69%) rats while T4 level was increased in diabetic rats and decreased in hypothyroid ones. The decrease in T3 level in diabetic animals in spite of T4 increase may be attributed to the decrease in conversion of T4 to T3 as a result of hepatic 5′-DI decreased activity. Liver glycogen content was three-fold decreased in diabetic rats and was not significantly altered in both hypothyroid and diabetic hypothyroid rats. The serum leptin level and body weight gain were decreased in diabetic and diabetic hypothyroid rats; the leptin level was more deteriorated in diabetic hypothyroid rats while body weight gain was more affected in diabetic rats. Serum triglycerides level was more increased in diabetic rats than in diabetic hypothyroid ones on one hand, while total lipids, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol levels as well as cardiovascular indices were more deteriorated in diabetic hypothyroid rats than diabetic ones on the other hand. Serum total protein and globulin levels were decreased in diabetic rats and were increased in hypothyroid and diabetic hypothyroid rats. Hepatic total thiols and glutathione contents and catalase and peroxidase activity were profoundly decreased in diabetic rats while they (except glutathione) were increased in hypothyroid and diabetic hypothyroid rats. In conclusion, the hypothyroidism may have a counteracting effect on the hyperglycemic state and the elevated serum T4 level as well as the deteriorated antioxidant defense system found in diabetes mellitus, but both experimentally-induced diseases may synergize in inducing more elevation of serum total lipids, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and more decrease in leptin levels.
Keywords: HypothyroidismDiabetes mellitusRatsLeptinSerum lipid profileSerum protein profileAntioxidant defense system
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