User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View

MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 425-478, 2003

55 Pages Posted: 22 Apr 2019 Last revised: 28 Aug 2020

See all articles by Viswanath Venkatesh

Viswanath Venkatesh

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University - Pamplin College of Business

Michael G. Morris

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Gordon B. Davis

University of Minnesota - Twin Cities - Carlson School of Management

Fred D. Davis

University of Arkansas; Sogang University

Date Written: September 1, 2003

Abstract

Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we:

(1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models,

(2) empirically compare the eight models and their extensions,

(3) formulate a unified model that integrates elements across the eight models, and

(4) empirically validate the unified model.

The eight models reviewed are the theory of reasoned action, the technology acceptance model, the motivational model, the theory of planned behavior, a model combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, the model of PC utilization, the innovation diffusion theory, and the social cognitive theory. Using data from four organizations over a six-month period with three points of measurement, the eight models explained between 17 percent and 53 percent of the variance in user intentions to use information technology. Next, a unified model, called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), was formulated, with four core determinants of intention and usage, and up to four moderators of key relationships. UTAUT was then tested using the original data and found to outperform the eight individual models (adjusted R2 of 69 percent). UTAUT was then confirmed with data from two new organizations with similar results (adjusted R2 of 70 percent). UTAUT thus provides a useful tool for managers needing to assess the likelihood of success for new technology introductions and helps them understand the drivers of acceptance in order to proactively design interventions (including training, marketing, etc.) targeted at populations of users that may be less inclined to adopt and use new systems. The paper also makes several recommendations for future research including developing a deeper understanding of the dynamic influences studied here, refining measurement of the core constructs used in UTAUT, and understanding the organizational outcomes associated with new technology use.

Suggested Citation

Venkatesh, Viswanath and Morris, Michael G. and Davis, Gordon B. and Davis, Fred D., User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View (September 1, 2003). MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 425-478, 2003, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3375136

Viswanath Venkatesh (Contact Author)

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University - Pamplin College of Business ( email )

VA
United States

HOME PAGE: http://vvenkatesh.com

Michael G. Morris

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Gordon B. Davis

University of Minnesota - Twin Cities - Carlson School of Management ( email )

19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55455
United States

Fred D. Davis

University of Arkansas ( email )

Fayetteville, AR 72701
United States

Sogang University ( email )

Seoul 121-742
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

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