The Blood Compatibility Challenge. Part 4: Surface Modification for Hemocompatible Materials: Passive and Active Approaches to Guide Blood-Material Interactions
27 Pages Posted: 14 May 2019 First Look: Accepted
Biomedical devices in the blood flow disturb the fine-tuned balance of pro- and anti-coagulant factors in blood and vessel wall. Numerous technologies have been suggested to reduce coagulant and inflammatory responses of the body towards the device material, ranging from camouflage effects to permanent activity and further to a responsive interaction with the host systems. However, not all types of modification are suitable for all types of medical products.This review has a focus on application-oriented considerations of hemocompatible surface fittings. Thus, passive versus bioactive modifications are discussed along with the control of protein adsorption, stability of the immobilization, and the type of bioactive substance,biological or synthetic. Further considerations are related to the target system, whether enzymes or cells should be addressed in arterial or venous system, or whether the blood vessel wall is addressed. Recent developments like feedback controlled or self-renewing systems for drug release or addressing cellular regulation pathways of blood platelets and endothelial cells are paradigms for a generation of blood contacting devices, which are hemocompatible by cooperation with the host system.
Keywords: hemocompatibility, surface modification, coagulation, blood platelets, passivation, bioactive coating
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