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Optimization of Photocrosslinkable Resin Components and 3D Printing Process Parameters

13 Pages Posted: 14 May 2019 First Look: Accepted

See all articles by Antonio J. Guerra

Antonio J. Guerra

University of Girona - Department of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Construction; Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Jan Lammel

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; Tecnologico de Monterrey - Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias

Alex Katko

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Alex Kleinfehn

University of Akron - Department of Polymer Science

Ciro A. Rodríguez

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; Tecnologico de Monterrey - Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias

Luiz H. Catalani

University of São Paulo (USP) - Department of Fundamental Chemistry

Matthew L. Becker

University of Akron - Department of Polymer Science

Joaquim Ciurana

University of Girona - Department of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Construction

David Dean

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Abstract

The role of 3D printing in the biomedical field is growing. In this context, photocrosslink-based 3Dprinting procedures for resorbable polymers stand out. Despite much work, more studies are needed on photocuring stereochemistry, new resin additives, new polymers and resin components. As par tof these studies it is vital to present the logic used to optimize the amount of each resin constituent and how that effects printing process parameters.The present manuscript aims to analyze the effects the poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) resin components and their effect on 3D printing process parameters. Diethyl fumarate (DEF),bisacylphosphine oxide (BAPO), Irgacure 784, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB) and,for the first time, in biomedical 3D printing, ethyl acetate (EA), were the resin components under investigation in this study. Regarding printing process parameters, Exposure Time, Voxel Depth,and Overcuring Depth were the parameters studied. Taguchi Design of Experiments was used tosearch for the effect of varying these resin constituent concentrations and 3D printing parameters onthe curing behavior of 3D printable PPF resins.Our results indicate that resins with higher polymer cross-link density, especially those with a higher content of PPF, are able to be printed at higher voxel depth and with greater success (i.e.,high yield). High voxel depth, as long as it does not sacrifice required resolution, is desirable as it speeds printing. Nevertheless, the overall process is governed by the correct setup of the voxeldepth in relation to overcuring depth. In regards to resin biocompatibility, it was observed that EAis more effective than DEF, the material we had previously relied on. Our preliminary in vitrocytotoxicity tests indicate that the use of EA does not reduce scaffold biocompatibility as measured by standard cytotoxicity testing (i.e., ISO 10993-5). We demonstrate a workpath for resin constituent concentration optimization through thin film tests and photocrosslinkable process optimization.

Keywords: Poly(Propylene Fumarate), Polymer Resin, Cytotoxicity, Stereolithography (SLA), Digital Light Processing (DLP), Mask Projection, 3D Printing, Additive Manufacturing, Scaffold, Bone Tissue Engineering

Suggested Citation

Guerra, Antonio J. and Lammel, Jan and Katko, Alex and Kleinfehn, Alex and Rodríguez, Ciro A. and Catalani, Luiz H. and Becker, Matthew L. and Ciurana, Joaquim and Dean, David, Optimization of Photocrosslinkable Resin Components and 3D Printing Process Parameters (May 14, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3387695

Antonio J. Guerra (Contact Author)

University of Girona - Department of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Construction

Girona
Spain

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Columbus, OH
United States

Jan Lammel

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Columbus, OH
United States

Tecnologico de Monterrey - Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias

Monterrey
Mexico

Alex Katko

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Columbus, OH
United States

Alex Kleinfehn

University of Akron - Department of Polymer Science

Akron, OH
United States

Ciro A. Rodríguez

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Columbus, OH
United States

Tecnologico de Monterrey - Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias

Monterrey
Mexico

Luiz H. Catalani

University of São Paulo (USP) - Department of Fundamental Chemistry

Sao Paulo
Brazil

Matthew L. Becker

University of Akron - Department of Polymer Science

Akron, OH
United States

Joaquim Ciurana

University of Girona - Department of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Construction

Girona
Spain

David Dean

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Columbus, OH
United States

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