Ifnβ Reprograms Th2 Promoting Mature Lung TNFR2+ cDC2 Subset in vivo to Generate Regulatory T Cells and Restore Lung Mucosal Tolerance
36 Pages Posted: 22 May 2019 Sneak Peek Status: Under ReviewMore...
Lung dendritic cells and regulatory T cells control lung mucosal tolerance. Here, we identified a lung-resident IDO-1+TNFR2+ conventional DC2 (iR2D2) subset that induces antigen-specific regulatory T cells in the lung. iR2D2 is a microenvironment specialized DC subset whose existence depends on its constitutive TNFR2-pRelB-IDO-1 signaling. The iR2D2 intrinsic IFNAR-TGFβ1 signaling is necessary and sufficient for regulatory T cells induction in vivo. Surprisingly, iR2D2 is plastic. In a house dust mite (HDM) model of asthma, iR2D2 generates lung Th2 responses. Remarkably, intranasally administration of IFNβ reprogramed HDM-induced Th2-promoting iR2D2 back to generate regulatory T cells, reversed lung inflammation and protected mice from subsequent asthma exacerbation. Healthy human lung has a phenotypically similar tolerogenic iR2D2, which became IL-4+ in emphysema patients. Finally, IFNβ successfully reprogramed human emphysema iR2D2 ex vivo. These findings elucidate a fundamental mechanism controlling lung tolerance and a strategy to restore lung tolerance in inflammatory lung diseases.
Keywords: lung mucosal tolerance, TNFR2, IDO-1, dendritic cells subset, regulatory T cells, asthma
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