A Typology of Animosity and its Cross-National Validation
30 Pages Posted: 24 Nov 2003
Four types of animosity, the emotional antagonism felt towards a specific entity, were identified as a function of their sources (situational versus stable) and locus (personal versus national) of manifestation. A five-country survey was conducted in Asia to validate the typology, using the U.S. and Japan as target entities. Results affirmed the four-factor structure of the proposed typology. Several cross-national differences in animosity were also uncovered. Indonesians, Malaysians, and Thais tended to have greater situational animosity towards the U.S. than Japan except for Koreans and Singaporeans. Not surprising, Koreans showed greater stable animosity towards Japan than the U.S. Asians also demonstrated a higher level of animosity at the national than personal level. Implications arising from the findings are discussed and directions for future research suggested.
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