A Typology of Animosity and its Cross-National Validation

30 Pages Posted: 24 Nov 2003

See all articles by Swee Hoon Ang

Swee Hoon Ang

National University of Singapore (NUS) - Department of Marketing

Kwon Jung

National University of Singapore (NUS)

Ah Keng Kau

National University of Singapore (NUS) - Department of Marketing

Siew Meng Leong

National University of Singapore (NUS) - NUS Business School

Chanthika Pornpitakpan

National University of Singapore (NUS) - Department of Marketing

Soo Jiuan Tan

National University of Singapore (NUS) - Department of Marketing

Abstract

Four types of animosity, the emotional antagonism felt towards a specific entity, were identified as a function of their sources (situational versus stable) and locus (personal versus national) of manifestation. A five-country survey was conducted in Asia to validate the typology, using the U.S. and Japan as target entities. Results affirmed the four-factor structure of the proposed typology. Several cross-national differences in animosity were also uncovered. Indonesians, Malaysians, and Thais tended to have greater situational animosity towards the U.S. than Japan except for Koreans and Singaporeans. Not surprising, Koreans showed greater stable animosity towards Japan than the U.S. Asians also demonstrated a higher level of animosity at the national than personal level. Implications arising from the findings are discussed and directions for future research suggested.

Suggested Citation

Ang, Swee Hoon and Jung, Kwon and Kau, Ah Keng and Leong, Siew Meng and Pornpitakpan, Chanthika and Tan, Soo Jiuan, A Typology of Animosity and its Cross-National Validation. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=339362 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.339362

Swee Hoon Ang

National University of Singapore (NUS) - Department of Marketing ( email )

Kent Ridge Crescent
Singapore 119260
Singapore

Kwon Jung

National University of Singapore (NUS)

1E Kent Ridge Road
NUHS Tower Block Level 7
Singapore, 119228
Singapore

Ah Keng Kau

National University of Singapore (NUS) - Department of Marketing ( email )

Kent Ridge Crescent
Singapore 119260
Singapore

Siew Meng Leong (Contact Author)

National University of Singapore (NUS) - NUS Business School ( email )

1 Business Link
Singapore, 117592
Singapore

Chanthika Pornpitakpan

National University of Singapore (NUS) - Department of Marketing ( email )

194/2 Nonsee Road
Yannawa
Bangkok 10120
Singapore

Soo Jiuan Tan

National University of Singapore (NUS) - Department of Marketing ( email )

Kent Ridge Crescent
Singapore 119260
Singapore

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