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The Prospects of a Highly Virulent Biofilm Dispersing Bacteriophage Isolated From Environment for Controlling Enterobacter cloacae in Clinical Medicine
43 Pages Posted: 28 May 2019More...
The global emergence of multi-drug resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex is one of the critical threats faced today by health care system as indicated by World Health Organisation. E. cloacae is one of the most common Enterobacter species amongst the E. cloacae complex and is often found closely associated with Enterobacter asburiae. The recent emergence of carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae complex against last-resort carbapenems has caught the attention of medical professionals and researchers who are now looking for therapeutic alternatives. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. cloacae complex is responsible for a high mortality rate amongst hospitalized patients frequently causing bacteraemia, urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections and others. Exploring alternate antibacterial therapeutic strategies like bacteriophages may be of paramount importance. The present study describes a highly virulent bacteriophage N5822, isolated from an environmental source displaying high lytic activity towards E. cloacae / E. asburiae. N5822 bacteriophage has a short burst time and high burst size when compared to other known Enterobacter phages. N5822 bacteriophage holds its lytic activity over several generations of exposures to the host. N5822 bacteriophage was found to be efficient in reduction of preformed static host biofilm, as well as inhibits the formation of new biofilm by up to 90%. It displayed high lytic activity, specificity, stable virulence and high biofilm dispersive capacity against the host showing great promise as antibacterial for E.cloacae / E. asburiae. While some studies today are focusing on genetically engineered phages to tackle the menace of MDR pathogens including biofilm producing MDR pathogens, we worry about the escape of such genetically engineered organisms into the environment may influence the bacterial community dynamics, bacterial genome evolution and ecosystem biogeochemistry. By employing improved and efficient phage isolation methods, the natural abundance of bacteriophages in the environment can be tapped for the greater purpose of human health.
Funding Statement: This work was funded by the Department of Science and Technology – Science and Engineering Research Board (DST-SERB) [grant number GAP-1-2066] and National Mission for Clean Ganga – Namami Gange Project (G – 2103). Also, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) for funded the research scholar.
Declaration of Interests: The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
Keywords: Multi-drug resistant, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacteriophage, phage therapy, Biofilm dispersion, environment
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