The Determinants of CO2 Emissions in MENA Countries: A Responsiveness Scores Approach
International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology (2019), DOI: 10.1080/13504509.2019.1606863, ISSN: 1745-2627
Posted: 12 Jun 2019
Date Written: 2019
This paper examines the relationship among carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, GDP, and energy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries by using a Responsiveness Scores (RS) approach. Empirical results over the period 1971–2013 suggest that GDP per capita and energy consumption show positive RSs, while trade and urban population negative ones. Moreover, energy consumption and urban population reveal moderate increasing returns to scale, while GDP per capita exhibits decreasing positive returns. Furthermore, three-way factors analysis sets out that most of the countries lays on regions with moderate negative Total Responsiveness Scores (TRS). This means that when all factors are jointly increased, CO2 emissions have a moderate decrease. In addition, some GCC countries present a different pattern compared to the average pattern of MENA countries. Finally, radar plots indicate that, overall, RS pattern over factors is moderately heterogeneous within GCC countries, with larger variability appearing in the response to urban population and GDP.
Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, responsiveness scores, MENA
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