Culture, Gender, and Math: A Revisitation

19 Pages Posted: 10 Jun 2019

See all articles by Brindusa Anghel

Brindusa Anghel

Foundation for Applied Economic Research (FEDEA)

Núria Rodríguez-Planas

City University New York (CUNY), Queens College; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Anna Sanz‐de‐Galdeano

Universidad de Alicante

Abstract

Using five waves of PISA data spanning the period 2003-2015 and exploiting variation both across- and within-countries, we find that the positive association between the female-male gender gap in math test scores (which on average favors boys) and alternative measures of gender equality vanishes in OECD countries once we account for country fixed effects. Our findings highlight the relevance of country-level confounding factors when relying on cross-country analyses to study the relationship between the gender gap in math and female empowerment. Interestingly, our analysis for non-OECD countries uncovers a positive and statistically significant relationship between the math gender gap and female labor force participation. Similar results hold for the female-male gap in reading scores, which generally favors girls. This suggests that, in non-OECD countries, females' human capital accumulation (relative to that of males) is affected by their labor market prospects.

Keywords: gender gap in math and reading scores, OECD and non-OECD, female employment and opportunities

JEL Classification: I1, Z1

Suggested Citation

Anghel, Brindusa and Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria and Sanz‐de‐Galdeano, Anna, Culture, Gender, and Math: A Revisitation. IZA Discussion Paper No. 12371. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3401139

Brindusa Anghel (Contact Author)

Foundation for Applied Economic Research (FEDEA) ( email )

Jorge Juan 46
Madrid, 28001
Spain

Nuria Rodriguez-Planas

City University New York (CUNY), Queens College ( email )

65-30 Kissena Blvd
Flushing, NY 11367-1597
United States

HOME PAGE: http://https://sites.google.com/site/nuriarodriguezplanas/

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Anna Sanz‐de‐Galdeano

Universidad de Alicante ( email )

Campus de San Vicente
Carretera San Vicente del Raspeig
San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante 03690
Spain

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