Principles for Fisheries Management in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction — The Essential Role of Incentive-Based Approaches

70 Pages Posted: 18 Jul 2019

See all articles by James Anderson

James Anderson

University of Florida

Frank Asche

Stavanger University College

Richard Alan Barnes

University of Hull

Simon Bush

Wageningen UR - Environmental Policy Group

Brad Gentner

Gentner Consulting Group

Charles Hufflet

Independent

Gary D. Libecap

Independent

Vishwanie Maharaj

Independent

Lindie Nelson

Independent

Wez Norris

Independent

Giansandro Perotti

Independent

Uwe Tietze

Independent

Kelly Wachowicz

Independent

Date Written: December 1, 2018

Abstract

Fisheries that intersect with the high seas, or areas beyond national jurisdictions (ABNJ), are ecologically, institutionally, and politically complex. These fisheries also generate enormous economic and social benefits, and have the potential to generate even greater benefits and wealth under improved management regimes that incorporate incentives.

Governance gaps within international instruments for ABNJ fisheries are well recognized. However, reform through a global process is slow and highly contingent upon political will. While the need for incentives is critical to make up for the gaps in governance, the gaps themselves and the multilateral nature of ABNJ fisheries management make it impossible to achieve first best solutions. Thus, a new theory of change for ABNJ fisheries is needed that mixes State regulation and economic incentives in a way that achieves “smart,” sustainable, and equitable management. Drawing on the vast multidisciplinary literature and insights from the Common Oceans Global Think Tank on ABNJ fisheries, this publication presents nine principles for utilizing “smart mixes” of regulatory and incentive-based tools (instruments). The following nine principles for smart instrument mixes are explained further in the publication, bolstered by examples and case studies:

1. Ensure compatible instrument combinations

2. Calibrate interventions towards points of least resistance, lowest cost, and maximum impact

3. Sequence or scale interventions as necessary to achieve goals

4. Empower participants to act as surrogate regulators and enable voluntary initiatives

5. Maximize opportunities for net gain outcomes

6. Consider and harness the responsiveness of stakeholders (bottom-up matters)

7. Consider top-down relationships, opportunities, and constraints

8. Monitor and adapt the smart mix in light of its effectiveness

9. Assess performance and adoption of better interventions

ABNJ fisheries are broad in scope and scale, and are composed of heterogeneous States and fishers with varied incomes and motivations. The result is that risks, expected costs, speed of transformation, scale of investments, and returns from these fisheries are highly variable. Thus, the nine principles should not be viewed as prescriptive. Instead, the principles provide guidelines for managers and policy makers to reflect on existing management, and steer stakeholders through an adaptive process to effect change. The biggest takeaway is that there is no single solution or path. Instead, these principles indicate solid directions to proceed, tempered by general conditions found across case studies presented here and in the wider OPP body of knowledge.

Keywords: fisheries, incentives, ABNJ, economics, market-based approaches, suasive instruments, finance

Suggested Citation

Anderson, James and Asche, Frank and Barnes, Richard Alan and Bush, Simon and Gentner, Brad and Hufflet, Charles and Libecap, Gary D. and Maharaj, Vishwanie and Nelson, Lindie and Norris, Wez and Perotti, Giansandro and Tietze, Uwe and Wachowicz, Kelly, Principles for Fisheries Management in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction — The Essential Role of Incentive-Based Approaches (December 1, 2018). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3406568 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3406568

James Anderson

University of Florida ( email )

PO Box 117165, 201 Stuzin Hall
Gainesville, FL 32610-0496
United States

Frank Asche

Stavanger University College ( email )

PO Box 2557
Ullandhaug
4004 Stavanger
Norway

Richard Alan Barnes (Contact Author)

University of Hull ( email )

Cottingham Road
Hull, Great Britain HU6 7RX
United Kingdom
+44 (0)1482 466320 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.hull.ac.uk/law/people/staff/barnes_r.html

Simon Bush

Wageningen UR - Environmental Policy Group ( email )

Hollandseweg 1
Wageningen, 6706 KN
Netherlands

Brad Gentner

Gentner Consulting Group ( email )

9007 Eton Road
Silver Spring, MD 20901
United States
202.455.4424 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.gentnergroup.com

Charles Hufflet

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

Gary D. Libecap

Independent

No Address Available

Vishwanie Maharaj

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

Lindie Nelson

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

Wez Norris

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

Giansandro Perotti

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

Uwe Tietze

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

Kelly Wachowicz

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

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