Temporal Assessment to Identify Smart Sustainable Indicators for Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems in Developed Countries – An Indian Case Study
Posted: 26 Jun 2019
Date Written: June 23, 2019
City planners in developing countries are making efforts to improve municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems over the last decade. Identification of performance indicators equip city planners in waste systems planning, systematic monitoring, and decision making. Identification of suitable indicator framework for waste management requires integration of urban data and expert knowledge. This study involves a twofold approach. First, temporal evaluation of waste practices in India before and after the implementation of Smart Cities Mission, Solid Waste Management (SWM) rules 2016 and Swachh Bharath Mission (SBM) was performed. Visakhapatnam, a swiftly emerging city in the state of Andhra Pradesh was selected to review the MSWM practices. Ward and city level surveys were conducted in the study area during the period 18th February 2013 to 23rd March 2013 (survey-1), June 9th, 2017 to July 6th, 2017 (survey-2) and 18th February to 07th March 2018 (survey-3). The study focused on reviewing the developments in the waste management practices and initiatives taken up by the local authorities in achieving their service level benchmarks. Second, three recently published indicator standards for smart sustainable cities were reviewed to identify set of indicators. A participatory approach through personal interactions with expert members was performed for content analysis. Municipal solid waste management practices improved significantly over the period in the study area. The average amount waste generation has increased from 950 tons/day (2013) to 1250 (2017) tons/day. Introduction of door-to-door collection systems and source segregation improved waste collection and treatment systems. Mechanization, infrastructure development, application of tracking and optimization systems improved the efficiency of collection and transportation of garbage. Street sweeping and drain cleaning operations were mechanized, and services extend round the clock. Centralized composting plants are in operation to process 100-120 tons of organic waste daily. Incineration plant of capacity 15MW and sanitary landfill are under construction phase. Organization of education, awareness and capacity building programs improved the awareness levels on the waste management systems. The industrial sectors have contributed to the development of the infrastructure through corporate social responsibility programs. Overall the implementation of SWM Rules 2016 and SBM improved the municipal solid waste management and handling systems. Based on the temporal assessment and review a set of indicators were identified and classified under five categories, environment, economy, social, governance, Information Communication and Technology (ICT). The outcomes of this paper provides insights to city planners to select the indicators to assess goals, evaluate needs, and monitor progress in implementation of municipal solid waste management as part of Smart Cities program.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste, Smart Sustainable cites, Urban Indicator, Decision Making
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation