Calculation of the Maximum Allowable Emissions of Air Pollutions from Production and Consumption Perspectives in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration
Posted: 28 Jun 2019 Last revised: 13 Jul 2019
Date Written: June 27, 2019
In recent years, with the acceleration of China's industrialization, urbanization and regional economic integration, the problem of atmospheric compound pollution caused by pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), SO2, and NOx has increasingly concerned about. As one of China's integrated construction regions, the problem of atmospheric compound pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is particularly serious. Therefor this region has become one of the key areas for air pollution control in China. In this study, we (1) based on the emissions of air pollutants of Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC), used the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with CALPUFF model (WRF- CALPUFF) to simulate the concentrations of SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 and transport characteristic between different cities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration in 2016; then from the production perspective, aiming at meeting the national air quality standards, we used the Linear Optimization method (LO) to calculate the maximum allowable emissions of these pollutants. (2) based on the input-output table in the city-level, used the Multi-regional Input-output model (MRIO) to calculate implicit transfer emissions of these air pollutions between different cities in this region, and then to estimate the maximum allowable emissions of air pollutions from the consumption perspective. (3) calculated the maximum allowable emission intensity (emission divided by economic output) of pollutants from two perspectives; then, without reducing production and consumption, we use Scenario Analysis to analyze how much emission intensity should be reduced based on the maximum allowable emission. The results showed that: (1) From the production perspective, the maximum allowable emissions of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration are about 668,400 t/year, 797,700 t/year and 279,900 t/year, respectively. The actual emissions of the whole region in 2016 are 1.3, 1.7 and 4.9 times of the maximum allowable emissions, respectively. The emissions of pollutant in Zhangjiakou is within the maximum allowable emission ranges, and other cities are beyond their ranges. (2) The differences between maximum allowable emissions based on the consumption and the production are obvious. The maximum allowable emissions of consumption of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 in this region are 1.18 times, 1.17 times and 1.22 times of production, respectively. The maximum allowable emissions based on consumption are significantly higher than that on production in Beijing city, particularly. (3) The maximum allowable emission intensities of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 based on production are 587 t/k$, 700 t/k$ and 246 t/k$, respectively. The intensities based on consumption are 693t/k$, 819 t/k$ and 300t/k$, respectively. Without reducing the production, the emission intensities of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 should be reduced by 25.2%, 41.7% and 66.2%, respectively. Without cutting down the consumption, the emission intensities should be reduced by 11.7%, 31.7% and 58.8%, respectively. To achieve the goal of reducing emission intensities, specific measures should be formulated, such as energy structure optimization, emission reduction technology upgrading and emission reduction means intensification.
Keywords: Maximum allowable emission; Production perspective; Consumption perspective; WRF-CALPUFF; MRIO
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