아프리카 농업 가치사슬 분석과 한국의 농정경험을 활용한 정책제안 (An Analysis of Africa’s Agricultural Value Chain and Lessons from Korea’s Agricultural Development Experience)
226 Pages Posted: 29 Jul 2019
Date Written: December 28, 2018
Korean Abstract: 아프리카 농업의 지속가능한 발전을 위해서는 비료투입이나 관개시설 확충 등과 같이 특정 분야에서의 개별사업에 역점을 두기보다는 농산물의 전체적인 흐름 즉, 가치사슬적인 측면에서 종합적인 접근이 필요하다. 단순히 농업생산 확대만으로는 지속가능한 농업발전을 기대하기 어려우며 시장을 통한 해법 즉, 생산자인 농민과 소비자 간의 거리를 좁힘으로써 선순화 구조를 형성하는 것이 중요하다. 과거 한국은 오늘날 아프리카 농업이 직면해 있는 장애요인들을 선험적으로 경험했을 뿐만 아니라, 비교적 성공적으로 극복했다는 점에서 정책적으로 공유할 부분이 적지 않다. 본 연구는 아프리카 농업 가치사슬 문제를 심층적으로 다루는 것으로 아프리카와 한국의 농업을 평행적으로 비교분석하고, 한국의 농업정책 경험을 활용하여 아프리카에 제시할 수 있는 정책제안을 모색하였다.
English Abstract: With the acknowledgement of the need to approach Africa’s agricultural sector through the lens of a comprehensive value chain approach, this research analyzes the challenges for each stage of the agricultural value chain in Africa and outlines policy recommendations based on Korea’s policy advancements and agricultural sector development since the 1950s when its initial conditions were similar to that of Africa.
There are arguments to sharing the Korean experience due to its singularity but Korea has encountered and has overcome the same challenges facing Africa today relatively successfully, which makes its experience of value to be shared with Africa. In fact, there is much demand for analyses on Korea’s agricultural development experience as various African countries and leaders, as well as institutions like the AfDB and policy makers have expressed interests in learning from Korea’s agricultural policies. However, their interests go beyond general history as they seek more detailed information; the manner in which policies were implemented, the institutions that supported the policies, measures of financial support, the manner in which (horizontal and vertical) relationships were formed between the various stakeholders in the value chain including the government, agricultural cooperatives, farmers, agricultural processing companies, retailers and others.
This research identifies and ranks policy areas that can be shared with Africa through interviews with various experts, discussions through an international workshop for agriculturalists and economists, and the use of the AHP model. Policy experiences that are most relevant to the African context are the establishment of a multipurpose agricultural cooperative with financial functions, the supply of agricultural inputs, and policies enhancing processing and quality management. On the other hand, policies on establishing wholesale markets and macro-agricultural policies were found to be insignificant. Though developing wholesale markets were quite significant in the Korean case, it is not so for Africa because of the limited volume of goods traded. Notwithstanding the fast growth of agro-markets in cities as a result of increasing purchasing power and rapid urbanization, most are still subsistent farmers with low levels of trade. The infrastructure is also yet inadequate to support wholesale trade.
Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.
Keywords: Africa, Agricultural Value Chain, Korea, Development Experience
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