Early Education and Gender Differences

23 Pages Posted: 29 Jul 2019

See all articles by Daniela Del Boca

Daniela Del Boca

University of Turin

Enrica Maria Martino

National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED); CHILD - Collegio Carlo Alberto

Elena Claudia Meroni

Joint Research Center of the European Commission

Daniela Piazzalunga


Date Written: July 2019


A rich strand of the economic literature has been studying the impact of different forms of early childcare on children cognitive and non-cognitive development in the short and medium run, and on a number of educational, labor market, and life outcomes in the long run. These studies agree in assessing the importance of the first years of life on future outcomes, and identify early childhood interventions as a powerful policy instrument to boost child development. Furthermore, most research agrees in identifying stronger beneficial effects among children from disadvantaged backgrounds, making a case for the role of childcare policies in reducing inequality. Instead, heterogeneity of results across gender is less clear-cut. Yet, it is important to understand how childcare arrangements differently affect boys and girls, to figure out how to boost cognitive and non-cognitive development of young children and how to reduce gender gaps later in life. Our paper offers a comprehensive review of the literature on early childcare impacts, shedding light on the heterogeneous effects across genders, considering the role of institutional background, type of the intervention, and age of the child. We also present some empirical results on the Italian case which indicates that gender differences in the outcomes is lower among children who attended an impact toddler center, while it is higher and more often statistically significant for those who received informal care. This result confirms the positive and equalizing role of early public childcare.

Keywords: childcare, child development, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, gender differences

JEL Classification: J13, J16

Suggested Citation

Del Boca, Daniela and Martino, Enrica Maria and Meroni, Elena Claudia and Piazzalunga, Daniela, Early Education and Gender Differences (July 2019). IZA Discussion Paper No. 12484, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3427623

Daniela Del Boca (Contact Author)

University of Turin ( email )

Via Po 53
Torino, 10100

Enrica Maria Martino

National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED) ( email )

133 Bd Davout
Paris cedex 20, France 75980

CHILD - Collegio Carlo Alberto ( email )


Elena Claudia Meroni

Joint Research Center of the European Commission

Via E. Fermi 2749
Ispra (VA), I-21027

Daniela Piazzalunga

FBK-IRVAPP ( email )

via Santa Croce 77
Trento, 38122
(+39) 0461 31 2288 (Phone)

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