Hate Crimes Against Trans People: Assessing Emotions, Behaviors and Attitudes Towards Criminal Justice Agencies

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2017

29 Pages Posted: 31 Jul 2019

See all articles by Mark Walters

Mark Walters

University of Sussex Law School

Jennifer Paterson

Independent

Rupert Brown

Independent

Liz McDonnell

University of Sussex

Date Written: 2017

Abstract

Based on a survey of 593 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the United Kingdom, this study shows that direct anti-LGBT hate crimes (measured by direct experiences of victimization) and indirect anti-LGBT hate crimes (measured by personally knowing other victims of hate crime) are highly prolific and frequent experiences for LGBT people. Our findings show that trans people are particularly susceptible to hate crimes, both in terms of prevalence and frequency. This article additionally highlights the negative emotional and (intended) behavioral reactions that were correlated with an imagined hate crime scenario, showing that trans people are more likely to experience heightened levels of threat, vulnerability, and anxiety compared with non-trans LGB people. The study found that trans people are also more likely to feel unsupported by family, friends, and society for being LGBT, which was correlated with the frequency of direct (verbal) abuse they had previously endured. The final part of this study explores trans people’s confidence levels in the Government, the police, and the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) in relation to addressing hate crime. In general, trans people felt that the police are not effective at policing anti-LGBT hate crime, and they are not respectful toward them as victims; this was especially true where individuals had previous contact with the police. Respondents were also less confident in the CPS to prosecute anti-LGBT hate crimes, though the level of confidence was slightly higher when respondents had direct experience with the CPS. The empirical evidence presented here supports the assertion that all LGBT people, but particularly trans individuals, continue to be denied equal participation in society due to individual, social, and structural experiences of prejudice. The article concludes by arguing for a renewed policy focus that must address this issue as a public health problem.

Keywords: hate crime, transgender, criminal justice attitudes

Suggested Citation

Walters, Mark Austin and Paterson, Jennifer and Brown, Rupert and McDonnell, Liz, Hate Crimes Against Trans People: Assessing Emotions, Behaviors and Attitudes Towards Criminal Justice Agencies (2017). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2017. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3427976

Mark Austin Walters (Contact Author)

University of Sussex Law School ( email )

Falmer
Brighton BN1 9QN
United Kingdom

Jennifer Paterson

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

Rupert Brown

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

Liz McDonnell

University of Sussex

Sussex House
Falmer
Brighton, Sussex BNI 9RH
United Kingdom

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