Patterns of Hate Crime: Who, What, When and Where?

Project Report. DEMOS

51 Pages Posted: 31 Jul 2019

See all articles by Mark Walters

Mark Walters

University of Sussex Law School

Alex Krasodomski-Jones

University of Sussex

Date Written: 2018


In an age where hate and prejudice transfer seamlessly from online conversations to our communities, we have a duty to protect the most vulnerable among us. Part of this process involves the effective reporting and distribution of data on hate crimes in our cities and suburbs. Understanding where these crimes are taking place, who the targets are and how themes like race, religion and sexual orientation play a role is essential to creating awareness of the problems we face, and allows us to take steps towards creating safe, equitable environments.

Demos’ partnership with the University of Sussex allowed us to take a look at data collected by the Metropolitan Police Service with the ultimate goal of identifying the existing targets of hate crime, and assisting the Police Service in their efforts to improve the ways in which hate crimes are recorded. Current methods enable officers to flag transgender hate crimes but do not allow them to record the gender identities of either suspects or victims as transgender or non-binary, creating a significant gap within the data. When the most at-risk members of our society are not adequately included in hate crime records, they are effectively silenced. By updating existing systems of classification, there is an opportunity to better identify and protect minority communities within the UK.

Keywords: hate crime

Suggested Citation

Walters, Mark Austin and Krasodomski-Jones, Alex, Patterns of Hate Crime: Who, What, When and Where? (2018). Project Report. DEMOS. Available at SSRN:

Mark Austin Walters (Contact Author)

University of Sussex Law School ( email )

Brighton BN1 9QN
United Kingdom

Alex Krasodomski-Jones

University of Sussex

Sussex House
Brighton, Sussex BNI 9RH
United Kingdom

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