Two Competing Models of Activism, One Goal: A Case Study of Anti-Whaling Campaigns in the Southern Ocean
15 Pages Posted: 1 Aug 2019
Date Written: January 1, 2012
In the Southern Ocean, two types of environmental campaigns have targeted the whaling industry. One approach, which exemplifies what I define as “protest” activism, utilizes consumer boycotts and protests to encourage divestment from the industry. The other approach, which exemplifies what I define as “interventionist” activism, uses a fleet of ships to directly intervene in and obstruct whaling operations in the Southern Ocean. Through the case study method, I demonstrate that the lawmaking function of activism and the effect it has on international behavioral norms change depending on the model employed. I conclude that, despite serious drawbacks, there are certain circumstances under which interventionist activism should be used to enforce international environmental law.
Keywords: environmental law, international environmental law, whaling, International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, environmental activism
JEL Classification: K33, K32
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation