Two Competing Models of Activism, One Goal: A Case Study of Anti-Whaling Campaigns in the Southern Ocean

15 Pages Posted: 1 Aug 2019

See all articles by Anthony Moffa

Anthony Moffa

University of Maine School of Law

Date Written: January 1, 2012

Abstract

In the Southern Ocean, two types of environmental campaigns have targeted the whaling industry. One approach, which exemplifies what I define as “protest” activism, utilizes consumer boycotts and protests to encourage divestment from the industry. The other approach, which exemplifies what I define as “interventionist” activism, uses a fleet of ships to directly intervene in and obstruct whaling operations in the Southern Ocean. Through the case study method, I demonstrate that the lawmaking function of activism and the effect it has on international behavioral norms change depending on the model employed. I conclude that, despite serious drawbacks, there are certain circumstances under which interventionist activism should be used to enforce international environmental law.

Keywords: environmental law, international environmental law, whaling, International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, environmental activism

JEL Classification: K33, K32

Suggested Citation

Moffa, Anthony, Two Competing Models of Activism, One Goal: A Case Study of Anti-Whaling Campaigns in the Southern Ocean (January 1, 2012). Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2012, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3428600

Anthony Moffa (Contact Author)

University of Maine School of Law ( email )

246 Deering Avenue
Portland, ME 04102
United States

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