The Psychological & Emotional Effects of Discrimination Within the LGBTQ, Transgender, & Non-binary Communities
16 Pages Posted: 1 Aug 2019
Date Written: February 1, 2019
Research indicates that the experience of being transgender or gender non-binary has existed for centuries. Evidence exists of gender non-conforming individuals within North America, Asia and Europe, with many cultures allowing people to live outside of a gender binary. These cultures realize gender, like sexuality, is expansive and that there are genders other than just the binary male or female categories. Transgender or gender non-binary individuals in the United States, however, suffer from elevated levels of anxiety and depression, poverty, and employment bias. They are targeted for criminal attack based on stigma and hate. These ills are preventable, and solutions are discussed in this essay by Pamuela Halliwell.
Keywords: gender identity, transgender, gender non-binary, gender non-conforming, anxiety, suicide, murder, misgendered, transphobia, transgender healthcare, insurance, transgender women of color
JEL Classification: K00, K1, K10, K36, K49
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation