Shifting Social Norms to Reduce Open Defecation in Rural India

29 Pages Posted: 1 Aug 2019

See all articles by Varun Gauri

Varun Gauri

World Bank; World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG)

Tasmia Rahman

World Bank

Iman Kalyan Sen

World Bank

Date Written: December 19, 2018

Abstract

Toilet ownership in India has grown in recent years, but open defecation can persist even when rural households own latrines. There are at least two pathways through which social norms inhibit the use of toilets in rural India: (i) beliefs/expectations that others do not use toilets or latrines or find open defecation unacceptable; and (ii) beliefs about ritual notions of purity that dissociate latrines from cleanliness. A survey in Uttar Pradesh, India, finds a positive correlation between latrine use and social norms at baseline. To confront these, an information campaign was piloted to test the effectiveness of rebranding latrine use and promoting positive social norms. The intervention, which made information about growing latrine use among latrine owners more salient, reduced open defecation practices across all treatment households, with average latrine use score in treatment villages increasing by up to 11 percent, relative to baseline. Large improvements were also observed in pro-latrine beliefs. This suggests that low-cost information campaigns can effectively improve pro-latrine beliefs and practices, as well as shift perceptions of why many people still find open defecation acceptable. Measuring social norms as described can help diagnose barriers to reducing open defecation, contribute to the quality of large-scale surveys, and make development interventions more sustainable.

Keywords: Sanitation and Sewerage, Water Supply and Sanitation Economics, Small Private Water Supply Providers, Environmental Engineering, Health and Sanitation, Water and Human Health, Town Water Supply and Sanitation, Engineering, Sanitary Environmental Engineering, Gender and Development, Health Care Services Industry

Suggested Citation

Gauri, Varun and Rahman, Tasmia and Sen, Iman Kalyan, Shifting Social Norms to Reduce Open Defecation in Rural India (December 19, 2018). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 8684, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3430467

Varun Gauri (Contact Author)

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20433
United States

HOME PAGE: http://econ.worldbank.org/staff/vgauri

World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG)

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Tasmia Rahman

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Iman Kalyan Sen

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

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