Job Accessibility and Urban Transport Connectivity: Evidence from Antananarivo, Madagascar

27 Pages Posted: 7 Aug 2019

See all articles by Atsushi Iimi

Atsushi Iimi

International Monetary Fund (IMF); World Bank

Date Written: August 6, 2019


In recent years, there has been renewed interest in access to jobs in relation to transport connectivity. In Sub-Saharan Africa, about 14 million working age people are added to the labor market every year. Ensuring sustained access to jobs seems to be a prerequisite for inclusive and robust economic growth. The paper examines the impact of public transit connectivity on access to jobs, especially focusing on wages. Using data from Antananarivo, Madagascar, it is shown that the wages earned by commuters are systematically higher than the wages earned by those who decided not to commute and are self-employed or engaged with family businesses around their neighborhood. Proximity to public transport, especially taxi-be, is important to promote people's access to jobs. It is also found that there is a substantial gender inequality in wages in the country: Women are more likely to use buses to commute, and yet, they earn less than men. In addition, the poor tend to benefit less from public transportation. Public bus services are affordable, however, the quality of the services may remain low.

Keywords: Transport Services, Labor Markets, Urban Transport, Transport in Urban Areas, Urban Housing, Urban Governance and Management, Municipal Management and Reform, Urban Housing and Land Settlements, Transport Economics Policy & Planning

Suggested Citation

Iimi, Atsushi, Job Accessibility and Urban Transport Connectivity: Evidence from Antananarivo, Madagascar (August 6, 2019). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 8959. Available at SSRN:

Atsushi Iimi (Contact Author)

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

700 19th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20431
United States

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

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