Endocrine Effects of Cytokines During Severe Infection
16 Pages Posted: 16 Aug 2019
Date Written: December 13, 2018
There are complex dynamics involving the endocrine and immune system. Cytokines are a key component of the immune system response to infection. The hypothalamus-anterior pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) and the hypothalamus-anterior pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis have significant dynamics with cytokines. In this paper there is a discussion on the background on the physiology of cytokines affects on the adrenal hormones and glands and on the reproductive hormones and glands. Pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling are important to understanding HPA and HPG axis responses to infection. In the second section of this research paper, effects of severe infection on production of cytokines are explored with a discussion on the negative feedback of cortisol on the production of cytokines, hence methods of treating sepsis to improve positive outcomes. The next section involved effects of cytokines during severe inflection on the adrenal axis and the reproductive axis with an interesting discussion on fertility issues with severe infection. In the last section, potential manipulations of cytokines for therapies for sepsis are investigated relating to adrenal dysfunction, neonatal sepsis and treatment for improved outcomes of critically ill patients with severe infection.
Keywords: Endocrine, Cytokines, Sepsis, Severe Infection
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