Gender Differences in Time Use: Allocating Time between the Market and the Household

53 Pages Posted: 15 Aug 2019 Last revised: 16 Aug 2019

See all articles by Eliana Carolina Rubiano Matulevich

Eliana Carolina Rubiano Matulevich

World Bank

Mariana Viollaz

Universidad Nacional de La Plata - Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)

Date Written: August 14, 2019

Abstract

Important progress toward gender equality has been made in the past decades, but inequalities linked to gender norms, stereotypes, and the unequal distribution of housework and childcare responsibilities persist. Lifetime events such as marriage and parenthood bring substantial changes in time use among women and men. This paper updates and reinforces the findings of previous studies by analyzing gender differences in the allocation of time among market work and unpaid domestic work. Results from the analysis of time use patterns in 19 countries of different income levels and from various regions suggest that women specialize in unpaid domestic and care work and men specialize in market work. The paper employs propensity score matching to assess the marriage and parenthood "penalty" on time use patterns over the lifecycle. The findings indicate that women of prime working age are the most penalized on a host of measures, including labor market participation, unpaid domestic work, and leisure time. Men are not necessarily penalized for, and sometimes benefit from, marriage or parenthood.

Keywords: Gender and Development, Inequality, Wages, Compensation & Benefits, Rural Labor Markets, Labor Markets, Educational Sciences

Suggested Citation

Rubiano Matulevich, Eliana Carolina and Viollaz, Mariana, Gender Differences in Time Use: Allocating Time between the Market and the Household (August 14, 2019). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 8981. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3437824

Eliana Carolina Rubiano Matulevich (Contact Author)

World Bank

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Mariana Viollaz

Universidad Nacional de La Plata - Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS) ( email )

Calle 6 e/47 y 48
La Plata, Provincia de Buenos Aires 1900
Argentina

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