Economic Evaluation of Laser Land Levelling Technology in Punjab (India) a Step Towards Sustainable Development
10 Pages Posted: 19 Aug 2019
Date Written: April 30, 2019
Declining water table and degrading soil health are the major concerns for the current growth rate and sustainability of Indian agriculture. Agriculture in Punjab has a heavy requirement of water for irrigation purposes. The dominance of rice and wheat monoculture in cropping pattern of Punjab over the years has led to over exploitation of ground water, resulting in rapid decline of water table in the entire state (except south western part). So the present study was undertaken to study the impact of laser land leveling on resource use and returns from paddy crop. Multistage purposive cum random sampling was used for the selection of the study area.Further two blocks from district Amritsar were selected at second stage for the study purpose. At third stage two villages from each block were randomly selected. At the final stage 100 farmers were selected for the study purpose. In order to undertake the impact assessment task of this technology, an equal number of adopters and non–adopters were selected from the same vicinity.
In all operations the time consumed was more in non-adopters category than in adopters category. It clearly shows the effect of Laser leveling technology. By comparing the variation in time spent of adopters over non-adopters major difference was in time spent on irrigation. In irrigation 63.80 hours were spent by adopters and 85.07 hours were spent by non-adopters in case of paddy. About 21 hours were more spent on irrigation by non-adopters in paddy crop. The total human labour-used was 44.23 hours per acre on adopter which was less as compared to non-adopter farms i.e. 47.25 hours per acre in paddy crop. The per acre labour-use on transplanting of paddy was 6.15 hours on laser leveled fields as compared to 6.45 hours on non-laser leveled fields. The per acre labour-use on plant protection was 7.25 hours laser leveled fields as compared to 8.85 hours on non-laser leveled fields. In all the farms operations more time was spent by non-adopters than by adopters. The difference was mainly due to laser leveling of the fields done by adopters farmers. The cost of laser land leveling incurred by the adopters of the technology was Rs 1025.75 per acre. The yield of paddy was 28.82 quintal per acre on laser leveled farms as compared to 26.98 quintal per acre on conventional farms. The variable cost per acre was less in the case of laser land leveled farms as compared to non-adopter farms. Due to higher productivity, the gross returns were also greater in case of adopter farms i.e. Rs.43518.2 as compared with non-adopter farms i.e. Rs.40739.8. The returns over variable cost were also higher in the case of laser land leveled fields i.e. Rs.32966.83 per acre, while in the case of non-adopter farms, the returns over variable cost worked out to be Rs.30034.38. Hence, with the use of laser land leveling technology, the profit increased by. Rs.2932.45 per acre in paddy crop.
To identify the factors affecting adoption, logit model was used in which adoption of laser land leveler was regressed with independent variables namely age, education, availability of laser leveler in the cooperative society, average time per irrigation, extension services in the village, less weed occurrence in the crop and yield of paddy crop of the farmers. The variables which were statistically significant have been used in backward step wise Regression model. Multivariate Logit Regression analysis was used to identify those variables which affect the respondents to use the laser leveler technology in wheat and paddy crop. In paddy crop the average time per irrigation and yield of crop influenced the use of laser level technology among adopters.
The main source of technology diffusion was fellow farmers and about 40 per cent of the farmers came to know and adopted the technology through learning from each other. The progressive farmers of the area adopted the technology and encouraged others to follow. The co-operative societies also played an important role in the diffusion of the technology.
An opinion survey was also carried out regarding non adoption of the technology from sample farmers. About 45 per cent of non-adopters reported that the reason of their non-adoption was the high cost of laser land leveling. While 55 per cent of non-adopters reported that they were not fully aware of the technology, resulting in non-adoption of the technology. About 60 per cent of non-adopters reported that the reason of the non-adoption of the technology was their small and marginal holding.
Keywords: Laser Land Levelling Technology, logit model, farmers, crop
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