A Supply and Demand Approach to Capital Markets
55 Pages Posted: 22 Aug 2019 Last revised: 7 Jan 2022
Date Written: January 3, 2022
We model capital markets by a parsimonious system of simultaneous linear equations expressing firm-level supply and demand for financial capital. Investor preferences, biases, and risk assessments drive capital supply, while a firm’s profitability and collateralizability drive demand. Firm sizes and capital costs are endogenously determined in general equilibrium. Using theoretically-motivated instruments, we estimate the supply and demand schedules of over 1,200 U.S. firms. We quantify the equilibrium sensitivity of firm size and capital cost to systematic risks, social score, profitability, and asset tangibility. The paper highlights the usefulness of empirical approaches at the intersection of corporate finance and asset pricing.
Keywords: Asset pricing, corporate finance, capital allocation, general equilibrium, factor-based investing, anomalies, production economy, sustainable investing
JEL Classification: G11, G12
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