Ethical, Legal and Social Challenges of Predictive Policing

Católica Law Review, Direito Penal, 2019, Volume 3 - N 3, p. 77-98

17 Pages Posted: 11 Sep 2019 Last revised: 13 Feb 2020

See all articles by Oskar Josef Gstrein

Oskar Josef Gstrein

University of Groningen - Campus Fryslân; Europa-Institut, Saarland University

Anno Bunnik

Data Research Centre, Campus Fryslân

Andrej Zwitter

Campus Fryslân

Date Written: August 30, 2019

Abstract

While Predictive Policing is an innovative tool to use data and statistical methods to forecast the probability of crime and improve the effectiveness of deployment of resources, it is based on many underpinning assumptions. The main ethical issues relating to PP circle around the themes data selection and machine bias, visualisation and interpretation of forecasts, transparency and accountability, time and effectiveness as well as the problem of stigmatisation of individuals, environments and community areas. This translates into the legal domain and particularly questions relating to privacy. The current legislative framework only partly addresses these issues, focusing mainly on individual rights and not on groups and how they might be affected. The main societal concerns relating to the use of Predictive Policing circle around the establishment of trust. In this overview developed in cooperation with several European law enforcement agencies and members of civil society, we submit that it is still unclear whether Predictive Policing is effective if its main objective is to reduce crime rates.

Keywords: Predictive Policing, Artificial Intelligence, Surveillance, Ethics, Human Dignity

Suggested Citation

Gstrein, Oskar Josef and Bunnik, Anno and Zwitter, Andrej, Ethical, Legal and Social Challenges of Predictive Policing (August 30, 2019). Católica Law Review, Direito Penal, 2019, Volume 3 - N 3, p. 77-98, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3447158

Oskar Josef Gstrein (Contact Author)

University of Groningen - Campus Fryslân ( email )

P.O. Box 800
9700 AH Groningen, Groningen 9700 AV
Netherlands

HOME PAGE: http://www.rug.nl/staff/o.j.gstrein/

Europa-Institut, Saarland University ( email )

Campus, Gebäude B2.1
Saarbrücken, 66123
Germany

HOME PAGE: http://europainstitut.de

Anno Bunnik

Data Research Centre, Campus Fryslân ( email )

P.O. Box 800
9700 AH Groningen, Groningen 9700 AV
Netherlands

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.rug.nl/staff/a.m.bunnik/research

Andrej Zwitter

Campus Fryslân ( email )

P.O. Box 800
9700 AH Groningen, Groningen 9700 AV
Netherlands

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