The Intersection of Race and Gender in Leadership of Cooperatives in North America: Of whom, By whom, and For whom?
Sengupta. U. (2015). The Intersection of Race and Gender in Leadership of Cooperatives in North America: Of whom, By whom, and For whom?. Journal of Co-operative Studies, Vol 48 no 3 (No 145) Winter.
10 Pages Posted: 13 Sep 2019
Date Written: September 5, 2015
This paper describes the intersection of class, gender and race in the leadership of cooperatives in North America. Movement of labour across North American borders changes the membership of cooperatives as well as the leadership and formation of cooperatives. The socio-economic shifts that affect cooperatives are also accompanied by marginalization of particular populations, including Indigenous communities and racial minorities. International cooperative principles remain ideals to aspire to rather than a reality in practice. Although women and racial minorities have made some advances in equity in cooperatives, racialized women in particular are not represented in leadership positions in cooperatives in proportion to membership in the broader population. On an optimistic note, cooperatives continue to be more egalitarian organizations than other types of organizations and therefore have the potential for leading as positive role models, addressing the intersection of gender and race for other organizations to follow. Women leading cooperatives will form different types of cooperatives than men leading cooperatives in the same industry. Additionally women of colour leading cooperatives will form different types of organizations than traditional cooperatives, providing for enriched plurality of organizational forms required for addressing complex socio-economic problems.
Keywords: Cooperatives,Indigenous,Women,Gender,Organizational Behavior,Race,Ethnicity,Economic Development,Neoliberalism
JEL Classification: A13,B54,D21,D63,E14,F16,I15,I31,J15,J54,L14,L21,L26,M14,M21,O14,P13,Q22,Q23,Q24,Q25,Q56,Q57,R52,Z13
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