Copyright as an Obstacle or an Enabler? A European Perspective on Text and Data Mining and Its Role in the Development of AI Creativity
(2020) 27(2) Asia Pacific Law Review 198-217
23 Pages Posted: 26 Sep 2019 Last revised: 9 Aug 2022
Date Written: September 12, 2019
Text and data mining (TDM) may be performed in a variety of fields and for different purposes. Among other things, TDM techniques may be used to ‘train’ Artificial Intelligence (AI), also for the purpose of AI-driven creativity. In this context, copyright restrictions might be in place, even if copies made of pre-existing content are only used internally and are instrument to the creation of something ‘new’. Recently, in the context of the Directive 2019/790 on copyright in the Digital Single Market, the EU legislature introduced two new mandatory exceptions for TDM.
This contribution discusses the interplay between TDM and AI creativity by focusing, first, on the potential and technicalities of TDM and the interplay with legal restrictions. Second, it reviews the copyright-related issues facing TDM and the debate underlying the adoption of this new piece of EU legislation. Third, it reflects on the future of AI creativity in Europe.
This article concludes that, even despite the adoption of two new mandatory TDM exceptions in the DSM Directive which are now to be transposed by individual EU Member States, copyright restrictions might continue affecting and restricting significantly the possibility of undertaking TDM activities in Europe.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Text and Data Mining, EU copyright, AI, Directive 2019/790, DSM Directive, technology
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