In Vitro Measurement of the Chemical Changes Occurring within Β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Graft Substitutes
72 Pages Posted: 20 Sep 2019 First Look: Accepted
Several mechanisms proposed to explain the osteoinductive potential of calcium phosphates involve surface mineralization ("bioactivity") and mention the occurrence of concentration gradients between the inner and the outer part of the implanted material. Determining the evolution of the local chemical environment occurring inside the pores of an implanted bone graft substitute (BGS) is therefore highly relevant. A quantitative and fast method was developed to measure the chemical changes occurring within the pores of β-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) granules incubated in a simulated body fluid. A factorial design of experiment was used to test the effect of particle size, specific surface area, microporosity, and purity of the β-TCP granules. Large pH, calcium and phosphate concentration changes were observed inside the BGS and lasted for several days. The kinetics and magnitude of these changes (up to 2 pH units) largely depended on the processing and properties of the granules. Interestingly, processing parameters that increased the kinetics and magnitude of the local chemical changes are parameters considered to favor calcium phosphate osteoinduction, suggesting that the model might be useful to predict the osteoinductive potential of BGSs.
Keywords: Calcium phosphate, Calcium, Phosphate, Local pH, Bioactivity, Osteoinductivity, Ectopic bone formation, Heterotopic bone formation, Bone graft substitute, Beta-tricalcium phosphate
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