Structure of HIV-2 Nef Reveals Unique Features Distinct from HIV-1 Involved in Immune Regulation
65 Pages Posted: 7 Oct 2019 Sneak Peek Status: Review CompleteMore...
The HIV accessory protein Nef plays a major role in establishing and maintaining infection, particularly through immune evasion. Many HIV-2 infected people experience long-term viral control and survival, resembling HIV-1 elite control. HIV-2 Nef has overlapping but also distinct functions from HIV-1 Nef. Here we report the crystal structure of HIV-2 Nef core. The dileucine sorting motif forms a helix bound to neighboring molecules, and moreover, isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated that the CD3 endocytosis motif can directly bind to HIV-2 Nef, ensuring AP-2 mediated endocytosis for CD3. The highly-conserved C-terminal region forms a α-helix, absent from HIV-1. We further determined the structure of SIV Nef harboring this region, demonstrating similar C-terminal α-helix, which may contribute to AP-1 binding for MHC-I downregulation. These results provide new insights into the distinct pathogenesis of HIV-2 infection.
Keywords: HIV-2, Nef, x-ray crystallography, immune evasion, HIV, SIV, sorting motif, kinase
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