Structural Transformation, Extractive Industries and Gender Equality

39 Pages Posted: 21 Oct 2019 Last revised: 9 Apr 2020

See all articles by Sarah Baum

Sarah Baum

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Anja Benshaul-Tolonen

Barnard College - Department of Economics

Date Written: October 9, 2019

Abstract

What is the impact of the highest value export industry in low and middle income countries---the extractive industries (oil, gas and mining)---on gender equality? Resource dependent countries have greater gender inequality, lower education levels and more patriarchal norms after taking GDP per capita into account. A review of the empirical literature shows that extractive industries have highly gender-specific effects, where the economic impacts such as job creation interacts with gender norms, e.g. gender segregation in labor markets, to determine labor and marriage markets, fertility and violence. Health---including sexual, reproductive and infant health---is determined by environmental factors, such as pollution, counteracted by economic opportunities. Program evaluation research ought to explore how to strengthen the beneficial effects while mitigating the undesirable.

Keywords: Extractive Industries, Natural Resources, Gender, Inclusive Growth

JEL Classification: O13; Q32; J16

Suggested Citation

Baum, Sarah and Tolonen, Anja, Structural Transformation, Extractive Industries and Gender Equality (October 9, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3464290 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3464290

Sarah Baum

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Anja Tolonen (Contact Author)

Barnard College - Department of Economics ( email )

3009 Broadway
New York, NY 10027
United States

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