Corruption as Form of Economic Crime and Government Effectiveness
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Development and Economy I.CO.D.ECON, Kalamata, Greece
11 Pages Posted: 19 Oct 2019 Last revised: 22 Jul 2020
Date Written: May 6, 2018
Corruption as form of economic crime is a global security issue and has finally been recognized as a first-tier international security challenge closely related to economic and social development. Many view corruption as a “victimless” crime and bribery only as a different way of doing business, but today there is wide acknowledgement that corruption infringes on the fundamental human right to equal treatment. Current studies yield important insights on the nexus of transnational organized crime (TOC) and corruption as major threats to political stability, human security, democracy and economic development. Money laundering, bribery, embezzlement, fraud, extortion, nepotism, cronyism and monopoly are among its manifestations. Research shows a very strong nexus between corruption and organized crime. This situation is common in post-communist and post-conflict countries where power vacuums and weak rule of law have created opportunities for criminal activities and unlawful actions. Any comprehensive analysis of the growing threat of TOC must consider the role of corruption in its role as an enabler for these activities. Today, TOC networks are much more sophisticated and challenging to fight. New TOC groups are constantly diversifying their methods and structures, and, enabled by the forces of globalization such as technology and innovation, have increased their impact on society. By adapting new technologies and methodologies, organized criminal networks have dramatically increased their reach into the lives and affairs of ordinary people, governments and private companies. Globally, institutions such as the EU, the Council of Europe, the Organization of American States, Transparency International, the World Bank and the G-20, the group of countries accounting for 85 percent of the world economy, have recognized corruption as a global problem and are engaging in producing solutions. Furthermore, the matter in question highlights its tremendous impact on the geopolitical dimension as the basic pillars of last - economic one, political one, as well as the pillars of defense and security – are being influenced considerably by. In other words, the geopolitical factor “corruption”, according to the systemic geopolitical analysis constitute a basic component concerning both the investigation and monitoring of power’s distribution among actors/ players in the geopolitical game.
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